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West Nile Virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that was introduced into the U.S. in the New York City area in 1999. Despite its successful establishment and rapid spread in a naive environment, WNV has undergone limited evolution since its introduction. This evolutionary stability has been attributed to compromises made to permit alternating cycles of(More)
West Nile virus (WNV) has successfully spread throughout the USA, Canada, Mexico, the Caribbean and parts of Central and South America since its 1999 introduction into North America. Despite infecting a broad range of both mosquito and avian species, the virus remains highly genetically conserved. This lack of evolutionary change over space and time is(More)
West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, has significantly expanded its geographical and host range since its 1999 introduction into North America. The underlying mechanisms of evolution of WNV and other arboviruses are still poorly understood. Studies evaluating virus adaptation and fitness in relevant in vivo systems are largely lacking. In(More)
West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that was first introduced into the USA in the New York City area in 1999. Since its introduction, WNV has steadily increased both its host and geographical ranges. Outbreaks of the closely related flavivirus, St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), occur in the USA periodically, but levels of activity and(More)
A mark-recapture project examined dispersal and flight distances of Culex mosquitoes from a wastewater treatment plant in Albany, NY, during 2007 and 2008. A self-marking device was constructed to mark egressing mosquitoes with fluorescent marking powder. Mosquitoes were recaptured using 30 CDC miniature light traps located within a 2.0 km radius of the(More)
Understanding the potential for host range shifts and expansions of RNA viruses is critical to predicting the evolutionary and epidemiological paths of these pathogens. As arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) experience frequent spillover from their amplification cycles and are generalists by nature, they are likely to experience a relatively high(More)
West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) is the most geographically widespread arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) in the world and is found in multiple ecologically distinct settings. Despite the likelihood of frequent exposure to novel hosts, studies evaluating the capacity and correlates of host range expansions or shifts of WNV and other(More)
Culex pipiens L. complex mosquitoes have a global distribution and are primary vectors of pathogens of public health significance. In the U.S., Cx. pipiens bioformes, Cx. pipiens form pipiens and Cx. pipiens form molestus, as well as Cx. quinquefasciatus, are primary vectors of West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus). These mosquitoes reside in(More)
To determine if West Nile virus (WNV) infection of insect cells induces a protective RNAi response, Drosophila melanogaster S2 and Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells were infected with WNV, and the production of WNV-homologous small RNAs was assayed as an indicator of RNAi induction. A distinct population of approximately 25 nt WNV-homologous small RNAs was(More)
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are maintained in nature by cycling between vertebrate hosts and haematophagous invertebrate vectors. These viruses are responsible for causing a significant public health burden throughout the world, with over 100 species having the capacity to cause human disease. Arbovirus outbreaks in previously naïve environments(More)