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Analyses of how intralimb coordination during locomotion varies within and across different taxa are necessary for understanding the morphological and neurological basis for locomotion in general. Previous findings suggest that intralimb proportions are the major source of kinematic variation that governs intralimb coordination across taxa. Also,(More)
Understanding patterns and distributions of morphological traits is essential for discerning underpinning processes of morphological variation. We report on the variation in the avian pelvic limb skeleton. Length and width variables were measured in the skeletons of 236 avian species in order to examine the importance of body mass, ecological factors,(More)
The presence of three interconnected auditory ossicles in the middle ear is a defining characteristic of mammals, and aspects of ossicle morphology are related to hearing sensitivity. However, analysis and comparison of ossicles are complicated by their minute size and complex three-dimensional shapes. Here we introduce a geometric morphometric measurement(More)
The semicircular duct system is part of the sensory organ of balance and essential for navigation and spatial awareness in vertebrates. Its function in detecting head rotations has been modelled with increasing sophistication, but the biomechanics of actual semicircular duct systems has rarely been analyzed, foremost because the fragile membranous(More)
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