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A method is described for using a limited number (typically 10-50) of low-dose radiographs to reconstruct the three-dimensional (3D) distribution of x-ray attenuation in the breast. The method uses x-ray cone-beam imaging, an electronic digital detector, and constrained nonlinear iterative computational techniques. Images are reconstructed with high(More)
Little is known about risk factors for complications of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection in adults. The 1996 outbreak in central Scotland involved the largest number of adult case patients in whom hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) developed and, ultimately, the largest number of deaths associated with E. coli O157:H7 infection that has yet been recorded. We(More)
The detector is designed for imaging measurements requiring relatively high sensitivity and high spatial resolution. The detector can discriminate single X-ray photons, yet has the wide dynamic range ( approximately 10000:1) associated with integrating detectors. A GdO2S2 phosphor screen converts the incoming X-ray image into an optical image. The optical(More)
Breast cancer screening with x-ray mammography, using one or two projection images of the breast, is an indispensible tool in the early detection of breast cancer in women. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a 3D imaging technique that promises higher sensitivity and specificity in breast cancer screening at a similar radiation dose to conventional(More)
Scotland continues to report higher rates of infection with Escherichia coli O157 than elsewhere in the UK. Infection with E. coli O157 usually manifests as acute, afebrile, painful, bloody diarrhoea and is the commonest cause of Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome (HUS), an important cause of childhood renal failure. In 1996 an outbreak of E. coli O157 infection(More)
Electronic cigarettes are increasingly popular as a supposed safer alternative to tobacco cigarettes or a smoking cessation tool. Research and debate have focused primarily on possible adverse effects caused by the inhaled aerosol produced by electronic cigarettes and on smoking cessation efficacy. Few reports in the medical literature describe injuries(More)
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