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The individual-based approach of the lag phase is gaining interest, especially for pathogens that initially contaminate food products in low amounts. In this paper, the effect of temperature (30, 10, 7, 4 and 2 degrees C) and pH (7.4, 6.1, 5.5, 5.0, 4.7 and 4.4) on the individual cell lag phase of Listeria monocytogenes was examined in a factorial design,(More)
The effect of the individual environmental factors temperature (2-30 degrees C), pH (4.4-7.4) and a(w) (0.947-0.995) as well as the combinations of these factors on the individual cell lag phase and the generation time of Listeria monocytogenes was investigated. Individual cells were isolated using a serial dilution protocol in microtiter plates, and(More)
Research in millimeter dielectric waveguides is experiencing a growing interest for data communication and sensor systems. This paper fully analyzes the properties of the HE<sub>11</sub> mode in hollow fibers. It will provide a theoretical background that can then be used to choose an appropriate channel for a dielectric waveguide system. The focus of this(More)
A 1Mbit RRAM memory robust against variations in 45nm technology is presented. The focus lies on read reliability. To overcome variability a tuned reference signal is generated by connecting multiple reference cells in parallel. A bitline load has been designed to obtain maximum bitline voltage difference. Sense amplifier performance has been improved by(More)
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