Alexander R P Walker

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Babies who are small at birth or during infancy have increased rates of cardiovascular disease and non-insulin-dependent diabetes as adults. Some of these babies have low birthweights, some are small in relation to the size of their placentas, some are thin at birth, and some are short at birth and fail to gain weight in infancy. This paper shows how fetal(More)
In this prospective study, the relationship between energy and fat consumption and the risk of breast cancer was examined. Between 1977 and 1983, 31,209 Norwegian women, 20 to 54 years of age attended a health screening. The attendees were given a food-frequency questionnaire to be completed at home, and this was returned by 25,892 (83%). During the 7 to 13(More)
Frequency and severity of nausea and of vomiting during pregnancy, and of pronounced dietary cravings and aversions, were determined in a series of South African rural and urban black, Indian, coloured (European-African-Malay) and white women. Frequency of severe nausea ranged from 3.8% in rural blacks to 19.8% in white women, and of severe vomiting from(More)
PROTEIN-ENERGY-malnutrition (PEM) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in young children in Africa. In South Africa, in 1987, to help combating and preventing PEM in the rural black population, the Gold Fields Nutrition Unit was inaugurated at the Medical University of Southern Africa. In 1987-9, 442 patients (rural/peri-urban) plus their mothers or(More)
Hydrogen gas, which is produced during fermentation in the human colon, is either excreted in breath or metabolised by gut bacteria through a variety of pathways. These may include methanogenesis, dissimilatory sulphate reduction, and acetogenesis. To determine which of these routes predominates in the large intestine, stools were taken from 30 healthy(More)
Among sub-Saharan Africans in general, a generation or so ago, there was very little gain in weight, or in blood pressure, with age. Even at present, in most populations, especially in the indigent masses, obesity prevalence remains very low, at 1-5%. However, in South Africa and some neighbouring countries, Botswana, Namibia and Zimbabwe, with rise in(More)
UNLABELLED Diminished levels for fecal short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have been linked to occurrence of ulcerative colitis, colorectal polyps, and colon cancer, diseases that are rare or uncommon in African populations. PURPOSE The aim of this study was to determine fecal SCFA concentrations and fecal pH values in groups of black South Africans (African)(More)
In all western populations, mortality rates from cancer are high and even increasing: moreover, incidence rates of some cancers are also rising. As to propitiousness of preventive factors, genetic, gender, and age are beyond alteration: much the same applies to certain protective factors, e.g. late menarche, teenage pregnancy, high parity, long lactation,(More)
Among South African black women in rural areas, breast cancer is rare and remains very uncommon among urban dwellers in Soweto, Johannesburg. Since time of menopause is an influencing factor in breast cancer in white women, mean times were determined in series of 1850 and 1255 black women in rural and urban areas, respectively. Using probit analysis,(More)
Breath methane has been measured in 1016 people from four populations resident in Southern Africa which experience widely different risks of bowel cancer and other colonic diseases. Highly significant differences in the proportion of subjects with detectable methane in breath were found; % producers--rural black 84, urban black 72, white 52, Indian 41 (chi(More)