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Absorption of a photon by an opsin pigment causes isomerization of the chromophore from 11-cis-retinaldehyde to all-trans-retinaldehyde. Regeneration of visual chromophore following light exposure is dependent on an enzyme pathway called the retinoid or visual cycle. Our understanding of this pathway has been greatly facilitated by the identification of(More)
Through its various metabolites, vitamin A controls essential physiological functions. Both naturally occurring metabolites and novel retinoid analogues have shown effectiveness in many clinical settings that include skin diseases and cancer, and in animal models of human conditions affecting vision. In this review, we analyze several potential(More)
OBJECTIVE This study was undertaken to assess the role of p97 (also known as melanotransferrin) in the transfer of iron into the brain, because the passage of most large molecules is limited by the presence of the blood-brain barrier, including that of the serum iron transporter transferrin. METHODS To study the function of the soluble form of p97, we(More)
Lecithin-retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), an enzyme present mainly in the retinal pigmented epithelial cells and liver, converts all-trans-retinol into all-trans-retinyl esters. In the retinal pigmented epithelium, LRAT plays a key role in the retinoid cycle, a two-cell recycling system that replenishes the 11-cis-retinal chromophore of rhodopsin and cone(More)
PURPOSE Tpn is a member of the MHC class I loading complex and functions to bridge the TAP peptide transporter to MHC class I molecules. Metastatic human carcinomas often express low levels of the antigen-processing components Tapasin and TAP and display few functional surface MHC class I molecules. As a result, carcinomas are unrecognizable by effector(More)
In vertebrate retinal photoreceptors, photoisomerization of opsin-bound visual chromophore 11-cis-retinal to all-trans-retinal triggers phototransduction events. Regeneration of the chromophore is a critical step in restoring photoreceptors to their dark-adapted state. This regeneration process, called the retinoid cycle, takes place in the photoreceptor(More)
Retinoids carry out essential functions in vertebrate development and vision. Many of the retinoid processing enzymes remain to be identified at the molecular level. To expand the knowledge of retinoid biochemistry in vertebrates, we studied the enzymes involved in plant metabolism of carotenoids, a related group of compounds. We identified a family of(More)
Metabolism of vitamin A, all-trans-retinol, leads to the formation of 11-cis-retinaldehyde, the visual chromophore, and all-trans-retinoic acid, which is involved in the regulation of gene expression through the retinoic acid receptor. Enzymes and binding proteins involved in retinoid metabolism are highly conserved across species. We previously described a(More)
Oxidation of retinol via retinaldehyde results in the formation of the essential morphogen all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA). Previous studies have identified critical roles in the regulation of embryonic ATRA levels for retinol, retinaldehyde, and ATRA-oxidizing enzymes; however, the contribution of retinaldehyde reductases to ATRA metabolism is not(More)
BACKGROUND Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), a heterogeneous early-onset retinal dystrophy, accounts for approximately 15% of inherited congenital blindness. One cause of LCA is loss of the enzyme lecithin:retinol acyl transferase (LRAT), which is required for regeneration of the visual photopigment in the retina. METHODS AND FINDINGS An animal model of(More)