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Absorption of a photon by an opsin pigment causes isomerization of the chromophore from 11-cis-retinaldehyde to all-trans-retinaldehyde. Regeneration of visual chromophore following light exposure is dependent on an enzyme pathway called the retinoid or visual cycle. Our understanding of this pathway has been greatly facilitated by the identification of(More)
In vertebrate retinal photoreceptors, photoisomerization of opsin-bound visual chromophore 11-cis-retinal to all-trans-retinal triggers phototransduction events. Regeneration of the chromophore is a critical step in restoring photoreceptors to their dark-adapted state. This regeneration process, called the retinoid cycle, takes place in the photoreceptor(More)
Through its various metabolites, vitamin A controls essential physiological functions. Both naturally occurring metabolites and novel retinoid analogues have shown effectiveness in many clinical settings that include skin diseases and cancer, and in animal models of human conditions affecting vision. In this review, we analyze several potential(More)
Retinoids carry out essential functions in vertebrate development and vision. Many of the retinoid processing enzymes remain to be identified at the molecular level. To expand the knowledge of retinoid biochemistry in vertebrates, we studied the enzymes involved in plant metabolism of carotenoids, a related group of compounds. We identified a family of(More)
Metabolism of vitamin A, all-trans-retinol, leads to the formation of 11-cis-retinaldehyde, the visual chromophore, and all-trans-retinoic acid, which is involved in the regulation of gene expression through the retinoic acid receptor. Enzymes and binding proteins involved in retinoid metabolism are highly conserved across species. We previously described a(More)
Lecithin-retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), an enzyme present mainly in the retinal pigmented epithelial cells and liver, converts all-trans-retinol into all-trans-retinyl esters. In the retinal pigmented epithelium, LRAT plays a key role in the retinoid cycle, a two-cell recycling system that replenishes the 11-cis-retinal chromophore of rhodopsin and cone(More)
BACKGROUND Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), a heterogeneous early-onset retinal dystrophy, accounts for approximately 15% of inherited congenital blindness. One cause of LCA is loss of the enzyme lecithin:retinol acyl transferase (LRAT), which is required for regeneration of the visual photopigment in the retina. METHODS AND FINDINGS An animal model of(More)
Retinoid cycle describes a set of chemical transformations that occur in the photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelial cells. The hydrophobic and labile nature of the retinoid substrates and the two-cell chromophore utilization-regeneration system imposes significant constraints on the experimental biochemical approaches employed to understand this(More)
The uptake of dietary lipids from the small intestine is a complex process that depends on the activities of specific membrane receptors with yet unknown regulatory mechanisms. Using both mouse models and human cell lines, we show here that intestinal lipid absorption by the scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-BI) is subject to control by retinoid(More)