Alexander R. Judkins

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Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant brain tumor of children. To identify the genetic alterations in this tumor type, we searched for copy number alterations using high-density microarrays and sequenced all known protein-coding genes and microRNA genes using Sanger sequencing in a set of 22 MBs. We found that, on average, each tumor had 11 gene(More)
Hypoxia is known to be an important prognostic marker in many human cancers. We report the use of two oxygen measurement techniques in human brain tumors and compare these data with semiquantitative histological end points. Oxygenation was measured using the Eppendorf needle electrode and/or EF5 binding in 28 brain tumors. These data were compared with(More)
Trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9me3) is a marker of repressed transcription. Cells transfected with mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) show increased methylation of histone lysine residues, including H3K9me3, because of inhibition of histone demethylases by 2-hydroxyglutarate. Here, we evaluated H3K9me3 and its association with IDH mutations in(More)
Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs) are aggressive tumors associated with mutations in the SMARCB1 gene. In experimental systems, the loss of SMARCB1 is hypothesized to alter p16(INK4A) pathways resulting in the repression of tumor suppressors. To determine whether these pathways are deregulated in human MRT, we used immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) are distinct neurodegenerative disorders. We describe an 81-year-old woman with 3 years of progressive gait unsteadiness, frequent falls, and mild cognitive dysfunction, all considered clinically to be an early fronto-temporal neurodegenerative disorder. She died of an acute myocardial(More)
In the present study, DNA from 28 pediatric low-grade astrocytomas was analyzed using Illumina HumanHap550K single-nucleotide polymorphism oligonucleotide arrays. A novel duplication in chromosome band 7q34 was identified in 17 of 22 juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas and three of six fibrillary astrocytomas. The 7q34 duplication spans 2.6 Mb of genomic(More)
OBJECT Primary spinal cord ependymomas (EPNs) are rare in children, comprising classical WHO Grade II and III tumors and Grade I myxopapillary ependymomas (MEPNs). Despite their benign histology, recurrences and neural-axis dissemination have been reported in up to 33% MEPNs in the pediatric population. Treatment options beyond resection are limited, and(More)
Ependymoblastoma is a diagnostic label that has been applied to a variety of rare central nervous system (CNS) tumors over the last eight decades. Consequently, there is uncertainty about whether such an entity exists and what its characteristic features might be. The current study, based on 14 cases from our institutional archives and identified by the(More)
H3F3A mutations are seen in ∼30% of pediatric glioblastoma (GBMs) and involve either the lysine residue at position 27 (K27M) or glycine at position 34 (G34R/V). Sixteen genes encode histone H3, each variant differing in only a few amino acids. Therefore, how mutations in a single H3 gene contribute to carcinogenesis is unknown. H3F3A K27M mutations are(More)
We present a case of a 23-year-old man with a tumor containing glial and rhabdoid elements where the former had features of a pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) and the latter had the immunophenotype and genetic profile of an atypical rhabdoid/teratoid tumor. The patient presented with a short history of raised intracranial pressure with rapid(More)