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BACKGROUND Germline mutations and deletions of SMARCB1/INI1 in chromosome band 22q11.2 predispose patients to rhabdoid tumor and schwannomatosis. Previous estimates suggested that 15-20% of rhabdoid tumors were caused by an underlying germline abnormality of SMARCB1. However, these studies were limited by case selection and an inability to detect intragenic(More)
Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant brain tumor of children. To identify the genetic alterations in this tumor type, we searched for copy number alterations using high-density microarrays and sequenced all known protein-coding genes and microRNA genes using Sanger sequencing in a set of 22 MBs. We found that, on average, each tumor had 11 gene(More)
Many cancer cells consume large quantities of glutamine to maintain TCA cycle anaplerosis and support cell survival. It was therefore surprising when RNAi screening revealed that suppression of citrate synthase (CS), the first TCA cycle enzyme, prevented glutamine-withdrawal-induced apoptosis. CS suppression reduced TCA cycle activity and diverted(More)
Hypoxia is known to be an important prognostic marker in many human cancers. We report the use of two oxygen measurement techniques in human brain tumors and compare these data with semiquantitative histological end points. Oxygenation was measured using the Eppendorf needle electrode and/or EF5 binding in 28 brain tumors. These data were compared with(More)
Epithelioid malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors arising in preexisting schwannomas are extremely rare. We report an unusual example occurring in a patient with multiple schwannomas (schwannomatosis), all but 1 of which showed "neuroblastoma-like" histology. By immunohistochemistry, both the epithelioid malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and the(More)
Histone acetylation plays important roles in gene regulation, DNA replication, and the response to DNA damage, and it is frequently deregulated in tumors. We postulated that tumor cell histone acetylation levels are determined in part by changes in acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) availability mediated by oncogenic metabolic reprogramming. Here, we(More)
BACKGROUND Gliomatosis cerebri (GC) is a rare and typically fatal glial neoplasm of the central nervous system. In this report, the authors describe the largest cohort of children to date with GC and explore relations between potential prognostic factors, treatment, and survival. METHODS Imaging, pathologic, and outcome data were reviewed from 13 patients(More)
H3F3A mutations are seen in ∼30% of pediatric glioblastoma (GBMs) and involve either the lysine residue at position 27 (K27M) or glycine at position 34 (G34R/V). Sixteen genes encode histone H3, each variant differing in only a few amino acids. Therefore, how mutations in a single H3 gene contribute to carcinogenesis is unknown. H3F3A K27M mutations are(More)
Rhabdoid cells are encountered in specific entities, such as malignant rhabdoid tumor and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, as well as in composite rhabdoid tumors derived secondarily from other tumor types. Although rhabdoid tumors are uniformly aggressive, distinction of the entity from the phenotype remains important for its therapeutic implications. The(More)
Reducing body myopathy (RBM) is a rare disorder causing progressive muscular weakness characterized by aggresome-like inclusions in the myofibrils. Identification of genes responsible for RBM by traditional genetic approaches has been impossible due to the frequently sporadic occurrence in affected patients and small family sizes. As an alternative approach(More)