Alexander R Chang

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This cross-sectional survey assessed the determinants of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections among 2080 women who participated in cervical cancer screening. HPVs were typed by restriction and sequencing analyses. The prevalence of HPV was 7.3% (4.2% for high-risk, 1.9% for low-risk, and 2.1% for unknown-risk types). High-risk HPV prevalence decreased with(More)
  • A R Chang
  • 1999
This paper traces the cervical Papanicolaou smear test from the seminal work of George Papanicolaou undertaken more than 70 years ago, to the present use of computer technology to examine cervical smears. However, to successfully detect cervical cancer and precursor lesions, the standard of the specimens, as well as that of the screening laboratory, must be(More)
  • A R Chang
  • 1999
A 23-year-old woman gave a history of intermittent post-coital vaginal spotting, and a Papanicolaou smear indicated the presence of a low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and cellular changes due to the cytopathic effect of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Colposcopic examination showed a circum-ferential exophytic lesion (Fig 1). Multiple(More)
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