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Angiogenesis, the formation of blood vessels from a pre-existing vasculature, is a process whereby capillary sprouts are formed in response to externally supplied chemical stimuli. The sprouts then grow and develop, driven initially by endothelial-cell migration, and organize themselves into a dendritic structure. Subsequent cell proliferation near the(More)
In this paper we present a hybrid mathematical model of the invasion of healthy tissue by a solid tumour. In particular we consider early vascular growth, just after angiogenesis has occurred. We examine how the geometry of the growing tumour is affected by tumour cell heterogeneity caused by genetic mutations. As the tumour grows, mutations occur leading(More)
This study addresses the role of PTEN loss in intrinsic resistance to the BRAF inhibitor PLX4720. Immunohistochemical staining of a tissue array covering all stages of melanocytic neoplasia (n = 192) revealed PTEN expression to be lost in >10% of all melanoma cases. Although PTEN expression status did not predict for sensitivity to the growth inhibitory(More)
Angiogenesis, the growth of a network of blood vessels, is a crucial component of solid tumour growth, linking the relatively harmless avascular growth phase and the potentially fatal vascular growth phase. As a process, angiogenesis is a well-orchestrated sequence of events involving endothelial cell migration, proliferation; degradation of tissue; new(More)
We propose a cellular automaton model of solid tumour growth, in which each cell is equipped with a micro-environment response network. This network is modelled using a feed-forward artificial neural network, that takes environmental variables as an input and from these determines the cellular behaviour as the output. The response of the network is(More)
In this article, we present a new multiscale mathematical model for solid tumour growth which couples an improved model of tumour invasion with a model of tumour-induced angiogenesis. We perform nonlinear simulations of the multi-scale model that demonstrate the importance of the coupling between the development and remodeling of the vascular network, the(More)
Even after a tumor is established, it can early on enter a state of dormancy marked by balanced cell proliferation and cell death. Disturbances to this equilibrium may affect cancer risk, as they may cause the eventual lifetime clinical presentation of a tumor that might otherwise have remained asymptomatic. Previously, we showed that cell death,(More)
Gliomas are uniformly fatal forms of primary brain neoplasms that vary from low- to high-grade (glioblastoma). Whereas low-grade gliomas are weakly angiogenic, glioblastomas are among the most angiogenic tumors. Thus, interactions between glioma cells and their tissue microenvironment may play an important role in aggressive tumor formation and progression.(More)
This study investigates the mechanism of action behind the long-term responses (12-16 months) of two BRAF WT melanoma patients to the AKT inhibitor MK-2206 in combination with paclitaxel and carboplatin. Although single agent MK-2206 inhibited phospho-AKT signaling, it did not impact in vitro melanoma growth or survival. The combination of MK-2206 with(More)
Cancer research attracts broad resources and scientists from many disciplines, and has produced some impressive advances in the treatment and understanding of this disease. However, a comprehensive mechanistic view of the cancer process remains elusive. To achieve this it seems clear that one must assemble a physically integrated team of interdisciplinary(More)