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Mutations of the gene Lps selectively impede lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signal transduction in C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScCr mice, rendering them resistant to endotoxin yet highly susceptible to Gram-negative infection. The codominant Lpsd allele of C3H/HeJ mice was shown to correspond to a missense mutation in the third exon of the Toll-like receptor-4 gene(More)
BACKGROUND Differences in responses to bacterial surface lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) are apparent between and within mammalian species. It has been shown in mice that resistance to LPS is caused by defects in the Toll-like receptor 4 gene (Tlr4), the product of which is thought to bind LPS and mediate LPS signal transduction in immune system cells. RESULTS(More)
Tlr4 has emerged as a specific conduit for the bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) response. The fact that such a protein exists, and furthermore, the fact that it is one member of a family of proteins expressed by mononuclear cells, yields considerable insight into the mechanism by which phagocytes "see" the microbial universe. It cannot yet be assumed that(More)
Infection with the trematode parasite Schistosoma mansoni results in a distinct heterogeneity of disease severity, both in humans and in an experimental mouse model. Severe disease is characterized by pronounced hepatic egg-induced granulomatous inflammation in a proinflammatory cytokine environment, whereas mild disease corresponds with reduced hepatic(More)
In a phenotypic screen of the wild-derived mouse strain MOLF/Ei, we describe an earlier and more potent toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated induction of IL-6 transcription compared with the classical inbred strain C57BL/6J. The phenotype correlated with increased activity of the IkappaB kinase axis as well as p38, but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase(More)
Although inflammatory cytokines produced by activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are essential for early host defense against infection, they also mediate a vast array of pathologies, including autoimmune disease, hypersensitivity reactions, and sepsis. Thus, numerous regulatory mechanisms exist in parallel with proinflammatory pathways to prevent(More)
Infection with the trematode parasite Schistosoma mansoni results in distinct heterogeneity of disease severity both in humans and in mice. In the experimental mouse model, severe disease is characterized by pronounced hepatic egg-induced granulomatous inflammation mediated by CD4 Th17 cells, whereas mild disease is associated with reduced hepatic(More)
Recognition of microbial components is critical for activation of TLRs, subsequent innate immune signaling, and directing adaptive immune responses. The DNA sensor TLR9 traffics from the endoplasmic reticulum to endolysosomal compartments where it is cleaved by resident proteases to generate a competent receptor. Activation of TLR9 by CpG-motif containing(More)
The Energy Problem (EP) in General Relativity (GR) is analyzed in the context of GR's axiomatic inconsistencies. EP is classified according to its local and global aspects. The local aspects of the EP include noncovariance of the energy-momentum pseudotensor (EMPT) of the gravitational field, non-uniqueness of the EMPT, asymmetry of EMPT and vanishing(More)