Alexander Pfeifer

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Adult neurogenesis in mammals is restricted to two small regions, including the olfactory bulb, where GABAergic and dopaminergic interneurons are newly generated throughout the entire lifespan. However, the mechanisms directing them towards a specific neuronal phenotype are not yet understood. Here, we demonstrate the dual role of the transcription factor(More)
Agonist-induced Ca2+ entry into cells by both store-operated channels and channels activated independently of Ca2+-store depletion has been described in various cell types. The molecular structures of these channels are unknown as is, in most cases, their impact on various cellular functions. Here we describe a store-operated Ca2+ current in vascular(More)
Two types of photoreceptors, rods and cones, coexist in the vertebrate retina. An in-depth analysis of the retinal circuitry that transmits rod and cone signals has been hampered by the presence of intimate physical and functional connections between rod and cone pathways. By deleting the cyclic nucleotide-gated channel CNG3 we have generated a mouse(More)
In the mammalian brain, neurogenesis continues only in few regions of the forebrain. The molecular signals governing neurogenesis in these unique neurogenic niches, however, are still ill defined. Here, we show that bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-mediated signaling is active in adult neural stem cells and is crucial to initiate the neurogenic lineage in the(More)
The vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) is associated with actin filaments and focal adhesions, which form the interface between the cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix. VASP is phosphorylated by both the cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinases in a variety of cells, including platelets and smooth muscle cells. Since both the cAMP and cGMP(More)
Regulation of smooth muscle contractility is essential for many important biological processes such as tissue perfusion, cardiovascular haemostasis and gastrointestinal motility. While an increase in calcium initiates smooth muscle contraction, relaxation can be induced by cGMP or cAMP. cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGKI) has been suggested as a major(More)
Mutations in the CYLD gene cause tumors of hair-follicle keratinocytes. The CYLD gene encodes a deubiquitinase that removes lysine 63-linked ubiquitin chains from TRAF2 and inhibits p65/p50 NF-kappaB activation. Here we show that mice lacking Cyld are highly susceptible to chemically induced skin tumors. Cyld-/- tumors and keratinocytes treated with(More)
The introduction of foreign genes into early mouse embryos and embryonic stem (ES) cells is invaluable for the analysis of gene function and regulation in the living animal. The use of vectors derived from retroviruses as gene transfer vehicles in this setting has had limited success because of silencing of transgene expression. Here, we show that vectors(More)
Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a potential cellular mechanism for learning and memory. The retrograde messenger nitric oxide (NO) is thought to induce LTP in the CA1 region of the hippocampus via activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) and, ultimately, cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK). Two genes code for the isozymes cGKI and cGKII in vertebrates.(More)
Cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinases (cGKs) mediate cellular signaling induced by nitric oxide and cGMP. Mice deficient in the type II cGK were resistant to Escherichia coli STa, an enterotoxin that stimulates cGMP accumulation and intestinal fluid secretion. The cGKII-deficient mice also developed dwarfism that was caused(More)