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INTRODUCTION To evaluate the viability of a muscle tissue, it is essential to measure the tissue's contractile performance as well as to control its structure. Accurate contractility data can aid in development of more effective and safer drugs. This can be accomplished with a robust in vitro contractility assay applicable to various types of muscle tissue.(More)
The physiologic role of smooth muscle structure in defining arterial function is poorly understood. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between vascular smooth muscle architecture and functional contractile output. Using microcontact printing and muscular thin film technology, we engineered in vitro vascular tissues with strictly defined geometries and(More)
Defining the chronic cardiotoxic effects of drugs during preclinical screening is hindered by the relatively short lifetime of functional cardiac tissues in vitro, which are traditionally cultured on synthetic materials that do not recapitulate the cardiac microenvironment. Because collagen is the primary extracellular matrix protein in the heart, we(More)
Soft hydrogels such as alginate are ideal substrates for building muscle in vitro because they have structural and mechanical properties close to the in vivo extracellular matrix (ECM) network. However, hydrogels are generally not amenable to protein adhesion and patterning. Moreover, muscle structures and their underlying ECM are highly anisotropic, and it(More)
Smooth muscle (SM) exhibits a highly organized structural hierarchy that extends over multiple spatial scales to perform a wide range of functions at the cellular, tissue, and organ levels. Early efforts primarily focused on understanding vascular SM (VSM) function through biochemical signaling. However, accumulating evidence suggests that(More)
Many potential new asthma therapies that show promise in the pre-clinical stage of drug development do not demonstrate efficacy during clinical trials. One factor contributing to this problem is the lack of human-relevant models of the airway that recapitulate the tissue-level structural and functional phenotypes of asthma. Hence, we sought to build a model(More)
Vascular smooth muscle cells in muscular arteries are more elongated than those in elastic arteries. Previously, we reported changes in the contractility of engineered vascular smooth muscle tissue that appeared to be correlated with the shape of the constituent cells, supporting the commonly held belief that elongated muscle geometry may allow for the(More)
Biomedical research has relied on animal studies and conventional cell cultures for decades. Recently, microphysiological systems (MPS), also known as organs-on-chips, that recapitulate the structure and function of native tissues in vitro, have emerged as a promising alternative. However, current MPS typically lack integrated sensors and their fabrication(More)
Tongue weakness, like all weakness in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), occurs as a result of contraction-induced muscle damage and deficient muscular repair. Although membrane fragility is known to potentiate injury in DMD, whether muscle stem cells are implicated in deficient muscular repair remains unclear. We hypothesized that DMD myoblasts are less(More)
In vitro studies of cardiac physiology and drug response have traditionally been performed on individual isolated cardiomyocytes or isotropic monolayers of cells that may not mimic desired physiological traits of the laminar adult myocardium. Recent studies have reported a number of advances to Heart-on-a-Chip platforms for the fabrication of more(More)