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Citations to previous literature are extensively used to measure the quality and diffusion of knowledge. However, we know little about the different ways in which a study can be cited; in particular, are papers cited to point out their merits or their flaws? We elaborated a methodology to characterize "negative" citations using bibliometric data and natural(More)
I t is surprising that the prevailing performance taxonomy for scientists (star versus nonstar) focuses only on individual output and ignores social behavior, because innovation is often characterized as a communal process. To develop a deeper understanding of the mechanisms by which scientists influence the productivity of others, I expand the traditional(More)
The development prospects of a poor country or region depend in part on its capacity for innovation. In turn, the productivity of its innovators, whom are often concentrated around urban centers, depends on their access to technological knowledge. The emigration of highly skilled individuals weakens local knowledge networks (brain drain) but may also help(More)
Although knowledge flows create value, the market often does not price them accordingly. We examine ''unintended'' knowledge flows that result from the cross-border movement of inventors (i.e., flows that result from the move, but do not go to the hiring firm). We find that the inventor's new country gains from her arrival above and beyond the knowledge(More)
Large labs may spawn spin-outs caused by innovations deemed unrelated to the firm's overall business. Small labs generate demand for specialized services that lower entry costs for others. We develop a theoretical framework to study the interplay of these two localized externalities and their impact on regional innovation. We examine MSA-level patent data(More)
  • Sudheer Chava, Alexander Oettl, Ajay Subramanian, Krishnamurthy V Subramanian
  • 2013
We document empirical support for a key micro-level channel—innovation by young, private firms—through which financial sector deregulation affects economic growth. We find that intrastate banking deregulation, which increased the local market power of banks, decreased the level and risk of innovation by young, private firms. In contrast, interstate banking(More)
We study the impact of small firms on innovation in regions where large labs are present. Small firms generate demand for specialized services that lower entry costs for others. This effect is particularly relevant in the presence of large firms that spawn spin-outs caused by innovations deemed unrelated to the firm's overall business. We examine MSA-level(More)
hat kind of scientist does a department want to hire? The investigator who churns out high-impact papers and travels around the world giving seminars? Or someone with an average publication record who is always discussing other people's work with them, attending seminars and providing feedback on colleagues' papers? Most departments would probably hire the(More)
We exploit historical data on planned highways, railroads, and exploration routes as sources of exogenous variation, in order to estimate the effect of interstate highways on regional innovation: a 10% increase in a region?s stock of highways causes a 1.7% increase in regional patenting over a five-year period. In terms of the mechanism, we report evidence(More)