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Birds have dinosaur wings: The molecular evidence.
Within developmental biology, the digits of the wing of birds are considered on embryological grounds to be digits 2, 3 and 4. In contrast, within paleontology, wing digits are named 1, 2, 3 as aExpand
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Patterns of Skull Variation of Brachydelphis (Cetacea, Odontoceti) from the Neogene of the Southeastern Pacific
Abstract Brachydelphis mazeasi Muizon, 1988a, from the Pisco Formation (middle Miocene, Peru), is an odontocete originally known from 2 incomplete skulls and a few associated postcranial elements,Expand
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Did Paul Kammerer discover epigenetic inheritance? A modern look at the controversial midwife toad experiments.
  • Alexander O Vargas
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Journal of experimental zoology. Part B…
  • 15 November 2009
The controversy surrounding the alleged Lamarckian fraud of Paul Kammerer's midwife toad experiments has intrigued generations of biologists. A re-examination of his descriptions of hybrid crosses ofExpand
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An enigmatic plant-eating theropod from the Late Jurassic period of Chile
Theropod dinosaurs were the dominant predators in most Mesozoic era terrestrial ecosystems. Early theropod evolution is currently interpreted as the diversification of various carnivorous andExpand
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The developmental origin of zygodactyl feet and its possible loss in the evolution of Passeriformes
The zygodactyl orientation of toes (digits II and III pointing forwards, digits I and IV pointing backwards) evolved independently in different extant bird taxa. To understand the origin of thisExpand
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Additions to the diversity of elasmosaurid plesiosaurs from the Upper Cretaceous of Antarctica
Abstract Three specimens of elasmosaurid plesiosaurs (Sauropterygia, Plesiosauria) from Upper Cretaceous beds of Antarctica are described here. These include postcranial remains of a single adultExpand
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The digits of the wing of birds are 1, 2, and 3. A review.
Fossil evidence documenting the evolutionary transition from theropod dinosaurs to birds indicates unambiguously that the digits of the wing of birds are digits 1, 2, and 3. However, someExpand
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New Developmental Evidence Clarifies the Evolution of Wrist Bones in the Dinosaur–Bird Transition
A new study that integrates developmental and paleontological data reveals previously unsuspected evolutionary transformations during the emergence of the bird wrist, consistent with its derivationExpand
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The Evolution of HoxD-11 Expression in the Bird Wing: Insights from Alligator mississippiensis
Background Comparative morphology identifies the digits of the wing of birds as 1,2 and 3, but they develop at embryological positions that become digits 2, 3 and 4 in other amniotes. A hypothesis toExpand
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Frame‐shifts of digit identity in bird evolution and Cyclopamine‐treated wings
SUMMARY A highly conserved spatio‐temporal pattern of cartilage formation reveals that the digits of the bird wing develop from positions that become digits 2, 3, and 4 in other amniotes. However,Expand
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