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The mushroom body (MB) is a uniquely identifiable brain structure present in most arthropods. Functional studies have established its role in learning and memory. Here we describe the early embryonic origin of the four neuroblasts that give rise to the mushroom body and follow its morphogenesis through later embryonic stages. In the late embryo, axons of MB(More)
Classical histological studies have demonstrated the cellular organization of skin appendages and helped us appreciate the intricate structures and function of skin appendages. At this juncture, questions can be directed to determine how these cellular organizations are achieved. How do cells rearrange themselves to form the complex cyto-architecture of(More)
The neuropile of the late embryonic Drosophila brain can be subdivided into a vertical component (cervical connective), a transverse component (supraesophageal commissure), and a horizontal component for which we propose the term protocerebral connective. The core of each neuropile component is formed by numerous axon fascicles, the trajectory of which(More)
The Drosophila N-CAM homolog Fasciclin II (FasII) is expressed during the embryonic period in a subset of central neurons that pioneer the neuropile of the larval brain. Toward the end of embryogenesis, FasII expression in axon tracts diminishes but resumes from the late first larval instar in an increasingly complex pattern of axon tracts that join the(More)
In Drosophila, it has been shown that protein kinase A and hedgehog have antagonistic actions during the formation of imaginal disks. In vertebrate skin, sonic hedgehog is expressed specifically in the feather bud epithelia. using an in vitro explant culture model we showed that dibutyryl cAMP, a protein kinase A (PKA) activator, suppresses the expression(More)
Epithelial appendages are derivatives of epithelia that elaborate to form specialized structures and functions. The appendage can protrude out, such as in teeth and feathers, or invaginate in, such as in glands. The epithelia can be ectodermal, such as in hairs, or endodermal, such as in livers. Using feather as a prototype of epithelial appendage, we study(More)
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