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The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of level of dietary concentrate on rumen fermentation, digestibility, and N losses in lactating dairy cows. The experiment was a replicated 3x3 Latin square design with 6 cows and 16-d adaptation periods. Ruminal contents were exchanged between cows at the beginning of each adaptation period.(More)
An in vitro procedure was developed to estimate rate and extent of ruminal protein degradation using [15N]H3 to quantify uptake of protein degradation products for microbial protein synthesis. Incubations were conducted for 6 h in stirrer flasks with ruminal inoculum plus buffer, reducing solution, pectin, soluble carbohydrates, and added (15NH4)2SO4. Seven(More)
In a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square experiment, six heifers (443 +/- 6.1 kg) fed a 61% barley grain:39% alfalfa silage diet (DM basis) were given intraruminal doses of powdered Yucca schidigera (YS). Doses of 0 (control), 20, or 60 g/d were given at 0800 daily. Ruminal content was sampled 0, 2, 4, and 6 h after dosing. Acidity, concentrations of reducing(More)
Data sets from North American (NA, 739 diets) and North European (NE, 998 diets) feeding trials with dairy cows were evaluated to investigate the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) intake and ruminal degradability on milk protein yield (MPY) and efficiency of N utilization for milk protein synthesis (MNE; milk N / N intake) in dairy cows. The NA diets(More)
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dextrose, starch, NDF, and a carbohydrate (CHO) mix on utilization of ruminal ammonia in dairy cows. Four ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein cows (BW = 788 +/- 31 kg; 217 +/- 35 d in milk) were allocated to four treatments in a 4 x 4 Latin square design trial. Cows were fed an all alfalfa diet(More)
The goal of this review was to analyze published data related to mitigation of enteric methane (CH4) emissions from ruminant animals to document the most effective and sustainable strategies. Increasing forage digestibility and digestible forage intake was one of the major recommended CH4 mitigation practices. Although responses vary, CH4 emissions can be(More)
The objective of this study was to determine composition, particle size distribution, and in vivo kinetics of ruminal particles having functional specific gravity (FSG) greater or less than FSG of particles found in the omasum and reticulum of lactating dairy cows. Particles from the reticulum and the omasal had FSG of 1.03 and 1.02, respectively. Particles(More)
The effect of site of supplementation of a mixture of two crude preparations (Enzyme C and Enzyme X) of exogenous polysaccharide-degrading enzymes (EPDE) was studied in vivo using four ruminally and duodenally cannulated heifers (Exp. 1). The treatments were as follows: control (no EPDE), EPDE supplied through the diet (EF, 47.0 g/d), and EPDE infused(More)
The objectives of this analysis were to estimate historic (pre-European settlement) enteric CH(4) emissions from wild ruminants in the contiguous United States and compare these with present-day CH(4) emissions from farmed ruminants. The analysis included bison, elk (wapiti), and deer (white-tailed and mule). Wild ruminants such as moose, antelope(More)
Whole-crop barley harvested at the mid-dough stage was ensiled in 3-L laboratory silos either directly (at 30.7% DM) or after wilting (37.8% DM), and with or without application of Inoculant A, B, or D. Each inoculant contained multiple strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium. Two silos per treatment were opened on d 1, 3, 7, 15, and 47(More)