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In adult muscle, acetylcholine receptors (AChR) are restricted mainly to the motor endplate where the adult isoform (alphabetadeltaepsilon) is expressed. When skeletal muscle is denervated in animal models, there is atrophy of the muscle and a marked increase in expression of the AChR foetal isoform (alphabetagammadelta) containing a gamma-subunit. Similar(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to comprehensively define the genetic basis of early onset myasthenia gravis (EOMG). METHODS We have carried out a 2-stage genome-wide association study on a total of 649 North European EOMG patients. Cases were matched 1:4 with controls of European ancestry. We performed imputation and conditional analyses across(More)
Intratumorous expression of a 153-kd protein (p153), which contains an acetylcholine receptor-like epitope, is the only tumor marker described to date that significantly associates with thymoma in paraneoplastic myasthenia gravis (MG). Here, we report that p153 is identical to the midsize neurofilament, as verified by immunohistochemistry,(More)
A functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the PTPN22 gene encoding a protein tyrosine phosphatase has been associated with autoimmune disorders including myasthenia gravis (MG). As the PTPN22 R620W polymorphism has a wide variation of allele frequencies among different populations, this polymorphism was investigated in MG in Turkey. An emphasis(More)
Neuromuscular transmission failure in myasthenia gravis (MG) is most commonly elicited by autoantibodies (ab) to the acetylcholine receptor or the muscle-specific kinase, constituting AChR-MG and MuSK-MG. It is controversial whether these MG subtypes arise through different T helper (Th) 1, Th2 or Th17 polarized immune reactions and how these reactions are(More)
In generalized myasthenia gravis (MG) patients without detectable acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies (SNMG), the thymus is often reported as "normally involuted." We analyzed thymic compartments in 67 patients with generalized MG, with AChR antibodies (AChR+, n = 23), with muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) antibodies (MuSK+, n = 14) or with neither(More)
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is the prime autoimmune manifestation of thymomas. We investigated the generation of T cells with a regulatory phenotype (T(R)) in thymomas with and without associated MG. In patients with MG(+) thymomas, maturation and export of T(R) cells but not of other T-cell subsets was significantly reduced. We conclude that imbalance between(More)
Gene targeting approaches greatly facilitate insight into the functioning of monoamine transporters, the targets of potent antidepressants. The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is the molecular target of a large number of antidepressants. To assess the clearance of serotonin (5-HT) in the absence of the 5-HTT, we have generated double knockout mice lacking(More)
The molecular pathogenesis of thymomas and thymic carcinomas (TCs) is poorly understood and results of adjuvant therapy are unsatisfactory in case of metastatic disease and tumor recurrence. For these clinical settings, novel therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. Recently, limited sequencing efforts revealed that a broad spectrum of genes that play(More)
The mechanisms that underlie the development and maintenance of autoimmunity in myasthenia gravis are poorly understood. In this investigation, we evaluate the role of survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein family, in humans and in two animal models. We identified survivin expression in cells with B lymphocyte and plasma cells markers, and(More)