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The dimeric form of the kinesin motor and neck domain from rat brain with bound ADP has been solved by X-ray crystallography. The two heads of the dimer are connected via a coiled-coil alpha-helical interaction of their necks. They are broadly similar to one another; differences are most apparent in the head-neck junction and in a moderate reorientation of(More)
Protein kinases of the MARK family phosphorylate tau protein in its repeat domain and thereby regulate its affinity for microtubules and affect the aggregation of tau into Alzheimer paired helical filaments. We are searching for low molecular weight compounds to interfere with the activity of MARK and its pathways. Here we summarize structural features of(More)
We have determined the X-ray structure of rat kinesin head and neck domains. The folding of the core motor domain resembles that of human kinesin reported recently [Kull, F. J., et al. (1996) Nature 380, 550-554]. Novel features of the structure include the N-terminal region, folded as a beta-strand, and the C-terminal transition from the motor to the rod(More)
We have decorated microtubules with monomeric and dimeric kinesin constructs, studied their structure by cryoelectron microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction, and compared the results with the x-ray crystal structure of monomeric and dimeric kinesin. A monomeric kinesin construct (rK354, containing only a short neck helix insufficient for(More)
In adult muscle, acetylcholine receptors (AChR) are restricted mainly to the motor endplate where the adult isoform (alphabetadeltaepsilon) is expressed. When skeletal muscle is denervated in animal models, there is atrophy of the muscle and a marked increase in expression of the AChR foetal isoform (alphabetagammadelta) containing a gamma-subunit. Similar(More)
Long-haul transport along microtubules is crucial for neuronal polarity, and transport defects cause neurodegeneration. Tau protein stabilizes microtubule tracks, but in Alzheimer's disease it aggregates and becomes missorted into the somatodendritic compartment. Tau can inhibit axonal transport by obstructing motors on microtubules, yet tau itself can(More)
A functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the PTPN22 gene encoding a protein tyrosine phosphatase has been associated with autoimmune disorders including myasthenia gravis (MG). As the PTPN22 R620W polymorphism has a wide variation of allele frequencies among different populations, this polymorphism was investigated in MG in Turkey. An emphasis(More)
The microtubule-associated protein tau is a natively unfolded protein in solution, yet it is able to polymerize into the ordered paired helical filaments (PHF) of Alzheimer's disease. In the splice isoforms lacking exon 10, this process is facilitated by the formation of beta-structure around the hexapeptide motif PHF6 ((306)VQIVYK(311)) encoded by exon 11.(More)
Neuromuscular transmission failure in myasthenia gravis (MG) is most commonly elicited by autoantibodies (ab) to the acetylcholine receptor or the muscle-specific kinase, constituting AChR-MG and MuSK-MG. It is controversial whether these MG subtypes arise through different T helper (Th) 1, Th2 or Th17 polarized immune reactions and how these reactions are(More)
Gene targeting approaches greatly facilitate insight into the functioning of monoamine transporters, the targets of potent antidepressants. The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is the molecular target of a large number of antidepressants. To assess the clearance of serotonin (5-HT) in the absence of the 5-HTT, we have generated double knockout mice lacking(More)