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During the viewing of certain patterns, widely known as ambiguous or puzzle figures, perception lapses into a sequence of spontaneous alternations, switching every few seconds between two or more visual interpretations of the stimulus. Although their nature and origin remain topics of debate, these stochastic switches are generally thought to be the(More)
BACKGROUND Continuous viewing of ambiguous patterns is characterized by wavering perception that alternates between two or more equally valid visual solutions. However, when such patterns are viewed intermittently, either by repetitive presentation or by periodic closing of the eyes, perception can become locked or "frozen" in one configuration for several(More)
Spatial patterns of spontaneous neural activity at rest have previously been associated with specific networks in the brain, including those pertaining to the functional architecture of the primary visual cortex (V1). However, despite the prominent anatomical differences between cortical layers, little is known about the laminar pattern of spontaneous(More)
The role of primary visual cortex (V1) in determining the contents of perception is controversial. Human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of perceptual suppression have revealed a robust drop in V1 activity when a stimulus is subjectively invisible. In contrast, monkey single-unit recordings have failed to demonstrate such(More)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has revealed that the human brain undergoes prominent, regional hemodynamic fluctuations when a subject is at rest. These ongoing fluctuations exhibit distinct patterns of spatiotemporal synchronization that have been dubbed "resting state functional connectivity", and which currently serve as a principal tool to(More)
Certain pairs of visual patterns, when superimposed as if transparent, elicit a wavering percept in which one or the other pattern can enjoy temporary periods of exclusive visibility. This multistable perceptual phenomenon is called monocular rivalry or pattern rivalry (PR) and is most pronounced when the component patterns are faint and devoid of detail.(More)
Although the mammalian neocortex has a clear laminar organization, layer-specific neuronal computations remain to be uncovered. Several studies suggest that gamma band activity in primary visual cortex (V1) is produced in granular and superficial layers and is associated with the processing of visual input. Oscillatory alpha band activity in deeper layers(More)
The morphological and physiological development of avian and mammalian muscle spindles is reviewed, with emphasis on the recent literature. Subjects covered include the effect of sensory innervation and growth factors on the induction of muscle spindles, genesis of intrafusal fiber types as defined by isoforms of myosin heavy chains, and the establishment(More)
Some neurons in the visual cortex alter their spiking rate according to the perceptual interpretation of an observed stimulus, rather than its physical structure alone. Experiments in monkeys have suggested that, although the proportion of neurons showing this effect differs greatly between cortical areas, this proportion remains similar across different(More)