Alexander M. Walter

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Docking, the initial association of secretory vesicles with the plasma membrane, precedes formation of the SNARE complex, which drives membrane fusion. For many years, the molecular identity of the docked state, and especially the vesicular docking protein, has been unknown, as has the link to SNARE complex assembly. Here, using adrenal chromaffin cells, we(More)
Rapid neurotransmitter release depends on the ability to arrest the SNAP receptor (SNARE)-dependent exocytosis pathway at an intermediate "cocked" state, from which fusion can be triggered by Ca(2+). It is not clear whether this state includes assembly of synaptobrevin (the vesicle membrane SNARE) to the syntaxin-SNAP-25 (target membrane SNAREs) acceptor(More)
The distinct roles of the two estrogen receptor (ER) isotypes, ER and ER , in mediating the physiological responses to estrogens are not completely understood. Although knockout animal experiments have been aiding to gain insight into estrogen signaling, additional information on the function of ER and ER will be provided by the application of(More)
The distinct roles of the two estrogen receptor (ER) isotypes, ERalpha and ERbeta, in mediating the physiological responses to estrogens are not completely understood. Although knockout animal experiments have been aiding to gain insight into estrogen signaling, additional information on the function of ERalpha and ERbeta will be provided by the application(More)
Neurotransmitter release is mediated by the SNARE proteins synaptobrevin II (sybII, also known as VAMP2), syntaxin, and SNAP-25, generating a force transfer to the membranes and inducing fusion pore formation. However, the molecular mechanism by which this force leads to opening of a fusion pore remains elusive. Here we show that the ability of sybII to(More)
Brain function relies on fast and precisely timed synaptic vesicle (SV) release at active zones (AZs). Efficacy of SV release depends on distance from SV to Ca(2+) channel, but molecular mechanisms controlling this are unknown. Here we found that distances can be defined by targeting two unc-13 (Unc13) isoforms to presynaptic AZ subdomains. Super-resolution(More)
Neurotransmission involves the exo-endocytic cycling of synaptic vesicles (SVs) within nerve terminals. Exocytosis is facilitated by a cytomatrix assembled at the active zone (AZ). The precise spatial and functional relationship between exocytic fusion of SVs at AZ membranes and endocytic SV retrieval is unknown. Here, we identify the scaffold G protein(More)
Neurotransmitter release depends on the fusion of secretory vesicles with the plasma membrane and the release of their contents. The final fusion step displays higher-order Ca(2+) dependence, but also upstream steps depend on Ca(2+). After deletion of the Ca(2+) sensor for fast release - synaptotagmin-1 - slower Ca(2+)-dependent release components persist.(More)
The role of progestins in combined hormone therapy is the inhibition of uterine epithelial cell proliferation. The Women's Health Initiative study provided evidence for an increased risk of breast cancer in women treated with conjugated equine estrogens plus the synthetic progestin medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), compared with conjugated equine(More)
The tight spatial coupling of synaptic vesicles and voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (CaVs) ensures efficient action potential-triggered neurotransmitter release from presynaptic active zones (AZs). Rab-interacting molecule-binding proteins (RIM-BPs) interact with Ca2+ channels and via RIM with other components of the release machinery. Although human RIM-BPs(More)