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BACKGROUND Vaccination of health-care workers has been claimed to prevent nosocomial influenza infection of elderly patients in long-term care. Data are, however, limited on this strategy. We aimed to find out whether vaccination of health-care workers lowers mortality and the frequency of virologically proven influenza in such patients. METHODS In a(More)
PURPOSE To refine a preliminary analysis identifying a possibly increased prevalence of malformations among infants born to women exposed to paroxetine in the first trimester. METHODS This study used data from UnitedHealthcare, a large U.S. insurer, using datasets originally for a study of bupropion in pregnancy. We identified women with a live-born(More)
Readers of the American Journal of Epidemiology have seen a lively discourse on the topic of synergy, a major conceptual area in epidemiology for which there exists fundamental controversy as to definitions. In 1974, one of us (KJR) (1) proposed that synergy (or its negative counterpart, antagonism) between two or more causes of disease ought to be(More)
BACKGROUND There are few previous epidemiologic studies of gallbladder cancer, a rare but nearly always lethal gastrointestinal cancer with a demonstrated greater frequency in adult women and older subjects of both sexes, and also in the members of populations throughout central and eastern Europe and certain racial groups such as native American Indians.(More)
This study compared the risks of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in people with schizophrenia who use antipsychotic medications to risks in individuals without schizophrenia in a large managed care organization. A sample of 1920 schizophrenia patients was matched by age, sex, date, and health plan to 9600 persons randomly selected from the health(More)
OBJECTIVE To establish if a brief programme of domiciliary occupational therapy could improve the recovery of patients with stroke discharged from hospital. DESIGN Single blind randomised controlled trial. SETTING Two hospital sites within a UK teaching hospital. SUBJECTS 138 patients with stroke with a definite plan for discharge home from hospital.(More)
A prospective cohort study estimated the incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in drug injectors in South Wales (UK). In total, 286/481 eligible seronegative individuals were followed up after approximately 12 months. Dried blood spot samples were collected and tested for anti-HCV antibody and behavioural data were collected at baseline and follow-up. HCV(More)
The relation between age at first birth and the occurrence of fibrocystic breast disease of different atypia subtypes was evaluated using data from a cohort study of the health effects of oral-contraceptive use. Multivariate case-control analysis was performed on 218 parous women with biopsied fibrocystic disease and 928 parous controls. Fibrocystic breast(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE To determine whether obesity preceded knee osteoarthritis and was thus a possible cause. DESIGN Cohort study with weight and other important variables measured in 1948 to 1951 (mean age of subjects, 37 years) and knee arthritis evaluated in 1983 to 1985 (mean age of subjects, 73 years). SETTING Population-based participants; a subset (n(More)
BACKGROUND In January 1997, reference pricing for angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors for patients 65 years of age or older was introduced in British Columbia, Canada. For medications within a specific class, insurance covers the cost up to the reference price, and patients pay the extra cost of more expensive medications. Although reference(More)