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We study quasiparticle energy relaxation at subkelvin temperatures by injecting hot electrons into an Al island and measuring the energy flux from quasiparticles into phonons both in the superconducting and in the normal state. The data show strong reduction of the flux at low temperatures in the superconducting state, in qualitative agreement with the(More)
We present experiments on a superconductor-normal-metal electron refrigerator in a regime where single-electron charging effects are significant. The system functions as a heat transistor; i.e., the heat flux out from the normal-metal island can be controlled with a gate voltage. A theoretical model developed within the framework of single-electron(More)
While bulk gold is well known to be diamagnetic, there is a growing body of convincing experimental and theoretical work indicating that nanostructured gold can be imparted with unconventional magnetic properties. Bridging the current gap in experimental study of magnetism in bare gold nanomaterials, we report here on magnetism in gold nanocrystalline films(More)
Single electron transistors (SETs) fabricated from single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) can be operated as highly sensitive charge detectors reaching sensitivity levels comparable to metallic radio frequency SETs (rf-SETs). Here, we demonstrate how the charge sensitivity of the device can be improved by using the mechanical oscillations of a single-walled(More)
We demonstrate experimentally the manipulation of supercurrent in Al-AlOx-Ti Josephson tunnel junctions by injecting quasiparticles in a Ti island from two additional tunnel-coupled Al superconducting reservoirs. Both supercurrent enhancement and quenching with respect to equilibrium are achieved. We demonstrate cooling of the Ti line by quasiparticle(More)
We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally two limiting factors in cooling electrons using biased tunnel junctions to extract heat from a normal metal into a superconductor. First, when the injection rate of electrons exceeds the internal relaxation rate in the metal to be cooled, the electrons do not obey the Fermi-Dirac distribution, and the(More)