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Harnessing the adaptive immune response to treat malignancy is now a clinical reality. Several strategies are used to treat melanoma; however, very few result in a complete response. CD4(+) T cells are important and potent mediators of anti-tumor immunity and adoptive transfer of specific CD4(+) T cells can promote tumor regression in mice and patients.(More)
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are a heterogeneous population of cells that accumulate during tumor formation, facilitate immune escape, and enable tumor progression. MDSCs are important contributors to the development of an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment that blocks the action of cytotoxic antitumor T effector cells. Heterogeneity in(More)
Expansion and recruitment of CD4(+) Foxp3(+) regulatory T (T reg) cells are mechanisms used by growing tumors to evade immune elimination. In addition to expansion of effector T cells, successful therapeutic interventions may require reduction of T reg cells within the tumor microenvironment. We report that the combined use of the alkylating agent(More)
A primary goal of cancer immunotherapy is to improve the naturally occurring, but weak, immune response to tumors. Ineffective responses to cancer vaccines may be caused, in part, by low numbers of self-reactive lymphocytes surviving negative selection. Here, we estimated the frequency of CD8(+) T cells recognizing a self-antigen to be <0.0001% ((More)
Adenoviruses (Ad) have a variety of immunoregulatory genes, many of which are clustered in a 3.5-kb segment of DNA known as early region 3 (E3). Ad E3 codes for proteins that downregulate surface expression of class I major histocompatibility antigens and also inhibit tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)- and Fas-induced cytolysis. We were interested in(More)
Tumors exploit many strategies to evade T cell-mediated destruction. For example, tumors can prevent T cell infiltration by modifying gene expression in the endothelial cells and pericytes that form their vasculature. New work showing that the T cell-attracting chemokine CCL2 can be posttranslationally modified in the tumor microenvironment adds another(More)
A multitude of overlapping immunomod-ulatory pathways has evolved to maintain the normal immune homeostasis. Prominent immunosuppressive mechanisms involve transmembrane receptors expressed by effector T cells, such as CTLA-4, and immunosuppressive cell populations such as regulatory T cells (Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Tumor growth(More)
MELANOMA BRIDGE 2015 KEYNOTE SPEAKER PRESENTATIONS Molecular and immuno-advances K1 Immunologic and metabolic consequences of PI3K/AKT/mTOR activation in melanoma Vashisht G. Y. Nanda, Weiyi Peng, Patrick Hwu, Michael A. Davies K2 Non-mutational adaptive changes in melanoma cells exposed to BRAF and MEK inhibitors help the establishment of drug resistance(More)
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