Alexander M Capron

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This report summarizes the results of the first phase in the development of international guidelines for death determination, focusing on the biology of death and the dying process, developed by an invitational forum of international content experts and representatives of a number of professional societies. Precise terminology was developed in order to(More)
Of the roughly 40 million people living with HIV [1], an estimated 6 million in developing countries urgently need life-saving antiretroviral therapy (ART) [2]. Yet when the 3 by 5 Initiative was launched by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) in December 2003—an initiative that aims to treat 3(More)
By 2005, human organ trafficking, commercialization, and transplant tourism had become a prominent and pervasive influence on transplantation therapy. The most common source of organs was impoverished people in India, Pakistan, Egypt, and the Philippines, deceased organ donors in Colombia, and executed prisoners in China. In response, in May 2008, The(More)
BACKGROUND The U.S. Office for Human Research Protections has proposed that end points of randomized trials comparing the effectiveness of standard medical practices are risks of research that would require disclosure and written informed consent, but data are lacking on the views of potential participants. OBJECTIVE To assess attitudes of U.S. adults(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Leaders in the fields of nutrigenomics/genetics can benefit from studying the ethical and social issues raised by comparable biomedical developments in the recent past and their consequences for science and society. METHODS Experience with recombinant DNA research, beginning in the early 1970s, and its commercial application, and with(More)
The recent abandonment of the only active US protocol for harvesting organs from anencephalic "donors" indicates both the practical and the ethical problems inherent in such an effort. Various data suggest that surprisingly few such organs would actually end up benefiting other children. Attempts to revise either the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act or the(More)
Proposals to use organs from anencephalic infants to meet the growing need for transplantable organs are well-meaning but misguided. It would be unwise to amend the Uniform Determination of Death Act to classify anencephalics as "dead." They are in the same situation as other patients (such as the permanently comatose). Likewise, amending the Anatomical(More)
The transplantation of human cells and tissues has become a global enterprise for both life-saving and life-enhancing purposes. Yet current practices raise numerous ethical and policy issues relating to informed consent for donation, profit-making, and quality and safety in the procurement, processing, distribution, and international circulation of human(More)