Alexander Münchau

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Paroxysmal dyskinesias are episodic movement disorders that can be inherited or are sporadic in nature. The pathophysiology underlying these disorders remains largely unknown but may involve disrupted ion homeostasis due to defects in cell-surface channels or nutrient transporters. In this study, we describe a family with paroxysmal exertion-induced(More)
Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) at short interstimulus intervals was employed to investigate short-term effects of 5-Hz repetitive TMS (rTMS) over the primary motor hand area (M1(HAND)) on intracortical excitability. In ten healthy individuals, 1250 pulses of 5-Hz rTMS were applied at 90% of motor resting threshold over the left(More)
Rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism (RDP) (also known as DYT12) is characterized by the abrupt onset of dystonia and parkinsonism and is caused by mutations in the ATP1A3 gene. We obtained clinical data and sequenced the ATP1A3 gene in 49 subjects from 21 families referred with 'possible' RDP, and performed a genotype-phenotype analysis. Of the new families(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the after effects of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the primary motor cortex (M1) on corticospinal excitability. METHODS Eight healthy volunteers received either 150 or 1800 stimuli of 5 Hz rTMS on two separate days in a counterbalanced order. rTMS was given over the 'motor hot spot' of the right(More)
Recent studies have shown that low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the left dorsal premotor cortex has a lasting influence on the excitability of specific neuronal subpopulations in the ipsilateral primary motor hand area (M1(HAND)). Here we asked how these premotor to motor interactions are shaped by the intensity and(More)
Recent studies have shown that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the premotor cortex (PM) modifies the excitability of the ipsilateral primary motor cortex (M1). Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a new method to induce neuroplasticity in humans non-invasively. tDCS generates neuroplasticity directly in the cortical(More)
GTP cyclohydrolase 1, encoded by the GCH1 gene, is an essential enzyme for dopamine production in nigrostriatal cells. Loss-of-function mutations in GCH1 result in severe reduction of dopamine synthesis in nigrostriatal cells and are the most common cause of DOPA-responsive dystonia, a rare disease that classically presents in childhood with generalized(More)
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder in which cortical disinhibition has been proposed as a pathophysiological mechanism involved in the generation of tics. Tics are typically reduced during task performance and concentration. How this task-dependent reduction of motor symptoms is represented in the brain is not yet understood. The(More)
Writer's cramp is a task-specific hand dystonia affecting handwriting. Clinical scores such as the Arm Dystonia Disability Scale (ADDS) or Writer's Cramp Rating Scale (WCRS) as well as kinematic analysis of handwriting movements have been used to assess functional impairment in affected patients. In 21 patients with writer's cramp and healthy controls, we(More)
Connections between the premotor cortex and the primary motor cortex are dense and are important in the visual guidance of arm movements. We have shown previously that it is possible to engage these connections in humans and to measure the net amount of inhibition/facilitation from premotor to motor cortex using single-pulse transcranial magnetic(More)