Alexander Jetter

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The cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1A2 mediates the rate-limiting step in the metabolism of many drugs including theophylline, clozapine, and tacrine as well as in the bioactivation of procarcinogens. CYP1A2 activity shows both pronounced intra- and interindividual variability, which is, among other factors, related to smoking causing enzyme induction, to drug(More)
High amounts of acrylamide in some foods result in an estimated daily mean intake of 50 microg for a western style diet. Animal studies have shown the carcinogenicity of acrylamide upon oral exposure. However, only sparse human toxicokinetic data is available for acrylamide, which is needed for the extrapolation of human cancer risk from animal data. We(More)
Silibinin, the main component of silymarin (a milk thistle extract used for treatment of liver injury), has been shown to inhibit CYP3A4 in human liver microsomes. The present study was conducted to examine whether inhibition of CYP3A4 by silymarin is also present IN VIVO. Immediate release nifedipine (10 mg) was administered as a CYP3A4 test drug either(More)
OBJECTIVES Rosiglitazone is metabolically inactivated predominantly via the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme CYP2C8. The functional impact of the CYP2C8*3 allele coding for the Arg139Lys and Lys399Arg amino acid substitutions is controversial. The purpose of this was to clarify the role of this polymorphism with regard to the pharmacokinetics and clinical(More)
Recent progress in research on drug-induced liver injury (DILI) has been determined by key developments in two areas. First, new technologies allow the identification of genetic risk factors with improved sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency. Second, new mechanistic concepts of DILI emphasize the importance of unspecific "downstream" events following(More)
Isoniazid is metabolized by the genetically polymorphic arylamine N-acetyltransferase type 2 (NAT2). A greater number of high-activity alleles are related to increased acetylation capacity and in some reports to low efficacy and toxicity of isoniazid. The objective of this study was to assess individual isoniazid exposure based on NAT2 genotype to predict a(More)
Acrylamide, a potential food carcinogen in humans, is biotransformed to the epoxide glycidamide in vivo. Both acrylamide and glycidamide are conjugated with glutathione, possibly via glutathione-S-transferases (GST), and bind covalently to proteins and nucleic acids. We investigated acrylamide toxicokinetics in 16 healthy volunteers in a four-period(More)
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of CYP2B6 polymorphisms (according to ethnicity) and the influence of heterozygosity and homozygosity on plasma concentrations of efavirenz and nevirapine. METHODS Following written informed consent, 225 Caucasians and 146 Blacks were recruited from the German Competence Network for(More)
Trospium chloride, a quaternary amine with anticholinergic properties, is used for the treatment of overactive bladder with symptoms of urge urinary incontinence, urgency and urinary frequency. The pharmacokinetics of trospium chloride have been investigated in healthy volunteers, in patients with renal and hepatic impairment, and in those with symptoms of(More)
The hypoglycaemic drug tolbutamide is used for assessment of CYP2C9 activity in vivo. However, therapeutically active doses of 500 mg bear the risk of hypoglycaemia, and a tolbutamide-derived parameter based on a single plasma or urine concentration reflecting CYP2C9 activity accurately is lacking. We examined tolbutamide and its metabolites(More)