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High amounts of acrylamide in some foods result in an estimated daily mean intake of 50 microg for a western style diet. Animal studies have shown the carcinogenicity of acrylamide upon oral exposure. However, only sparse human toxicokinetic data is available for acrylamide, which is needed for the extrapolation of human cancer risk from animal data. We(More)
Acrylamide, a potential food carcinogen in humans, is biotransformed to the epoxide glycidamide in vivo. Both acrylamide and glycidamide are conjugated with glutathione, possibly via glutathione-S-transferases (GST), and bind covalently to proteins and nucleic acids. We investigated acrylamide toxicokinetics in 16 healthy volunteers in a four-period(More)
Isoniazid is metabolized by the genetically polymorphic arylamine N-acetyltransferase type 2 (NAT2). A greater number of high-activity alleles are related to increased acetylation capacity and in some reports to low efficacy and toxicity of isoniazid. The objective of this study was to assess individual isoniazid exposure based on NAT2 genotype to predict a(More)
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of CYP2B6 polymorphisms (according to ethnicity) and the influence of heterozygosity and homozygosity on plasma concentrations of efavirenz and nevirapine. METHODS Following written informed consent, 225 Caucasians and 146 Blacks were recruited from the German Competence Network for(More)
Phenotyping for drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters is used to assess quantitatively the effect of an intervention (e.g., drug therapy, diet) or a condition (e.g., genetic polymorphism, disease) on their activity. Appropriate selection of test drug and metric is essential to obtain results applicable for other substrates of the respective(More)
BACKGROUND In inflammation and infection, cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activities are down-regulated. Information on possible discrepancies in activities of CYP enzymes and drug transporters between HIV-infected patients and healthy people is limited. METHODS We used midazolam, dextromethorphan and digoxin as in vivo phenotyping probes for CYP3A(More)
Trospium chloride, a quaternary amine with anticholinergic properties, is used for the treatment of overactive bladder with symptoms of urge urinary incontinence, urgency and urinary frequency. The pharmacokinetics of trospium chloride have been investigated in healthy volunteers, in patients with renal and hepatic impairment, and in those with symptoms of(More)
The pharmacokinetics of dextromethorphan (DM) is markedly influenced by cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) enzyme polymorphisms. The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of the CYP2D6*1, *2, and *41 variants on DM metabolism in vivo and to identify other sources of pharmacokinetic variability. Concentrations of DM and dextrorphan (DO) in plasma and urine(More)
OBJECTIVES Cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) is responsible for the metabolic clearance of efavirenz and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CYP2B6 gene are associated with efavirenz pharmacokinetics. Since the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and the pregnane X receptor (PXR) correlate with CYP2B6 in liver, and a CAR polymorphism (rs2307424) and(More)
We assessed the suitability of 4beta-hydroxycholesterol (4betaOH-C) as an endogenous cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) phenotyping metric. 4betaOH-C and its ratio to cholesterol (4betaOH-C/C) were determined in five cocktail phenotyping studies, with and without co-medication with a potential CYP3A inhibitor. These parameters were compared with established(More)