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High amounts of acrylamide in some foods result in an estimated daily mean intake of 50 microg for a western style diet. Animal studies have shown the carcinogenicity of acrylamide upon oral exposure. However, only sparse human toxicokinetic data is available for acrylamide, which is needed for the extrapolation of human cancer risk from animal data. We(More)
Phenotyping for drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters is used to assess quantitatively the effect of an intervention (e.g., drug therapy, diet) or a condition (e.g., genetic polymorphism, disease) on their activity. Appropriate selection of test drug and metric is essential to obtain results applicable for other substrates of the respective(More)
The pharmacokinetics of dextromethorphan (DM) is markedly influenced by cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) enzyme polymorphisms. The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of the CYP2D6*1, *2, and *41 variants on DM metabolism in vivo and to identify other sources of pharmacokinetic variability. Concentrations of DM and dextrorphan (DO) in plasma and urine(More)
Acrylamide, a potential food carcinogen in humans, is biotransformed to the epoxide glycidamide in vivo. Both acrylamide and glycidamide are conjugated with glutathione, possibly via glutathione-S-transferases (GST), and bind covalently to proteins and nucleic acids. We investigated acrylamide toxicokinetics in 16 healthy volunteers in a four-period(More)
The cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1A2 mediates the rate-limiting step in the metabolism of many drugs including theophylline, clozapine, and tacrine as well as in the bioactivation of procarcinogens. CYP1A2 activity shows both pronounced intra- and interindividual variability, which is, among other factors, related to smoking causing enzyme induction, to drug(More)
This study aimed to quantify the inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP3A), CYP2D6, and P-glycoprotein in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving an antiretroviral therapy (ART) containing ritonavir boosted lopinavir, and to identify factors influencing ritonavir and lopinavir pharmacokinetics. We measured activities of CYP3A, CYP2D6, and(More)
The present study was conducted to assess a possible in vivo effect of propiverine, an anticholinergic drug to treat urinary incontinence and related disorders, on the activity of intestinal CYP3A4 and of hepatic CYP3A4, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP1A2. The activity of the respective cytochromes P450 was measured using the following metrics of selective(More)
Silibinin, the main component of silymarin (a milk thistle extract used for treatment of liver injury), has been shown to inhibit CYP3A4 in human liver microsomes. The present study was conducted to examine whether inhibition of CYP3A4 by silymarin is also present IN VIVO. Immediate release nifedipine (10 mg) was administered as a CYP3A4 test drug either(More)
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of CYP2B6 polymorphisms (according to ethnicity) and the influence of heterozygosity and homozygosity on plasma concentrations of efavirenz and nevirapine. METHODS Following written informed consent, 225 Caucasians and 146 Blacks were recruited from the German Competence Network for(More)
Isoniazid is metabolized by the genetically polymorphic arylamine N-acetyltransferase type 2 (NAT2). A greater number of high-activity alleles are related to increased acetylation capacity and in some reports to low efficacy and toxicity of isoniazid. The objective of this study was to assess individual isoniazid exposure based on NAT2 genotype to predict a(More)