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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The intraluminal thread model for middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) has gained increasing acceptance. Numerous modifications have been reported in the literature, indicating that the technique has not been standardized. The present study was performed to evaluate and optimize the reliability of this model. METHODS One hundred(More)
Vascular diameters and blood-brain-barrier (BBB) function were investigated in the parietal cortex of cats using an open skull window technique and intravital fluorescence microscopy. The cortical surface was superfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid containing: bradykinin (BK), Na+-arachidonate (AA), or xanthine-oxidase (XO). Na+-fluorescein (MW:(More)
The characteristics and mechanisms enabling the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to maintain the milieu of the brain have been reviewed in detail elsewhere Before discussing the possible role of mediators in BBB opening some pertinent aspects of the BBB will be discussed briefly. The morphological substrate of the BBB in cere­ bral vessels is the continuous layer(More)
The effect of bradykinin on the permeability and vasomotor response of pial vessels has been studied to enhance our understanding of the pathophysiological role of the kallikrein-kinin system in cerebral tissue. Intravital fluorescence microscopy of the pia arachnoidea was conducted using Na+-fluorescein, FITC-dextran, and FITC-albumin as low and high(More)
The pathophysiology of cerebral venous infarctions is poorly understood, due partially to the lack of a suitable experimental model. Therefore, we developed a model in rats to study acute and long-term changes of brain function and morphology following thrombosis of the superior sagittal sinus. The superior sagittal sinus of rats was exposed, ligated, and(More)
OBJECTIVE Cell death after cerebral ischemia is mediated by release of excitatory amino acids, calcium influx into cells, and generation of free radicals. We examined the hypothesis that concurrent administration of tirilazad, a well-known antioxidant, and magnesium, an antagonist of calcium and excitatory amino acids, would result in a synergistic(More)
The assessment of the functional outcome - in addition to the conventional endpoints as histomorphometry of the ischemic brain damage - for the evaluation of cerebroprotective therapies is increasingly recommended, although there is little consensus on appropriate procedures. We evaluated a battery of sensorimotor tasks in rats after transient middle(More)
Effects of severe lactacidosis were analyzed in vitro by employment of C6 glioma cells and astrocytes from primary culture. The cells were suspended in a physiological medium, which was rendered acidotic by addition of lactic acid in rising concentrations. A pH range of 7.4-4.2 was studied under maintenance of isotonicity and a normal electrolyte(More)
Cerebral injury is seen in one of three patients with multiple traumas; thus efficient shock treatment is a most important measure against the development of secondary brain damage. Small-volume resuscitation in severe hemorrhagic shock by hypertonic/hyperoncotic saline/dextran has been shown to instantaneously normalize cardiac output and to raise systemic(More)
The contribution of leukocytes to secondary brain damage after cerebral ischemia is still under discussion. The purpose of the present study was to examine the pial microcirculation after global cerebral ischemia while focusing on leukocyte-endothelium interactions during the early and late reperfusion period of up to 4 days. A closed cranial window(More)