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Since 1998, H3N2 viruses have caused epizootics of respiratory disease in pigs throughout the major swine production regions of the U.S. These outbreaks are remarkable because swine influenza in North America had previously been caused almost exclusively by H1N1 viruses. We sequenced the full-length protein coding regions of all eight RNA segments from four(More)
In October 1999, H4N6 influenza A viruses were isolated from pigs with pneumonia on a commercial swine farm in Canada. Phylogenetic analyses of the sequences of all eight viral RNA segments demonstrated that these are wholly avian influenza viruses of the North American lineage. To our knowledge, this is the first report of interspecies transmission of an(More)
An H1N2 influenza virus was isolated from a pig during an outbreak of respiratory disease and abortion on an Indiana farm in November 1999. Results of phylogenetic analyses indicate that this virus is a reassortant between a recent classical H1 swine virus and the reassortant H3N2 viruses that have emerged among American pigs since 1998.
An H1N2 influenza A virus was isolated from a pig in the United States for the first time in 1999 (A. I. Karasin, G. A. Anderson, and C. W. Olsen, J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:2453-2456, 2000). H1N2 viruses have been isolated subsequently from pigs in many states. Phylogenetic analyses of eight such viruses isolated from pigs in Indiana, Illinois, Minnesota,(More)
An H1N2 influenza virus (A/Duck/North Carolina/91347/01) (Dk/NC) was isolated from a wild duck in the United States in 2001. Genetic analyses showed that this duck virus has the same human/classical swine/avian reassortant genotype as the H1N2 viruses that have been isolated from pigs and turkeys in the US since 1999. Phylogenetic analyses of each gene(More)
 Influenza virus infection in pigs is both an animal health problem and a public health concern. As such, surveillance and characterization of influenza viruses in swine is important to the veterinary community and should be a part of human pandemic preparedness planning. Studies in 1976/1977 and 1988/1989 demonstrated that pigs in the U.S. were commonly(More)
Since 2003, three novel genotypes of H1 influenza viruses have been recovered from Canadian pigs, including a wholly human H1N2 virus and human-swine reassortants. These isolates demonstrate that human-lineage H1N2 viruses are infectious for pigs and that viruses with a human PB1/swine PA/swine PB2 polymerase complex can replicate in pigs.
BACKGROUND Maternal infection with influenza and other pathogens during pregnancy has been associated with increased risk for schizophrenia and neurodevelopmental disorders. In rodent studies, maternal inflammatory responses to influenza affect fetal brain development. However, to verify the relevance of these findings to humans, research is needed in a(More)
Influenza is a common respiratory disease in pigs, and since swine influenza viruses are zoonotic pathogens, they also pose human health risks. Pigs infected with influenza virus mount an effective immune response and are protected from subsequent challenge, whereas the currently available, inactivated-virus vaccine does not consistently confer complete(More)