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BACKGROUND Maternal infection with influenza and other pathogens during pregnancy has been associated with increased risk for schizophrenia and neurodevelopmental disorders. In rodent studies, maternal inflammatory responses to influenza affect fetal brain development. However, to verify the relevance of these findings to humans, research is needed in a(More)
Influenza virus infection in pigs is both an animal health problem and a public health concern. As such, surveillance and characterization of influenza viruses in swine is important to the veterinary community and should be a part of human pandemic preparedness planning. Studies in 1976/1977 and 1988/1989 demonstrated that pigs in the U.S. were commonly(More)
Highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza viruses are now enzootic in parts of Southeast Asia and the Middle East. Occasionally, these viruses transmit to humans and cause severe respiratory disease and fatalities. Currently, these viruses are not efficiently transmitted from person to person, although limited human-to-human transmission may have occurred(More)
Since January 2005, H3N2 influenza viruses have been isolated from pigs and turkeys throughout Canada and from a swine farmer and pigs on the same farm in Ontario. These are human/classical swine/avian reassortants similar to viruses that emerged in US pigs in 1998 but with a distinct human-lineage neuraminidase gene.
H3N3 and H1N1 influenza A viruses were isolated from Canadian pigs in 2001 and 2002. These viruses are phylogenetically related to waterfowl viruses and antigenically distinct from reference swine influenza viruses. The isolation of these viruses reemphasizes the potential for interspecies transmission of influenza viruses from waterfowl to pigs in North(More)
BACKGROUND Triple-reassortant (tr) viruses of human, avian, and swine origin, including H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 subtypes, emerged in North American swine herds in 1998 and have become predominant. While sporadic human infections with classical influenza A (H1N1) and with tr-swine influenza viruses have been reported, relatively few have been documented in(More)
In 1997 and 1998, H3N2 influenza A viruses emerged among pigs in North America. Genetic analyses of the H3N2 isolates demonstrated that they had distinctly different genotypes. The most commonly isolated viruses in the United States have a triple-reassortant genotype, with the hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, and PB1 polymerase genes being of human influenza(More)
BACKGROUND An avian-like H1N1 swine influenza virus (SIV) is enzootic in swine populations of Western Europe. The virus is antigenically distinct from H1N1 SIVs in North America that have a classical swine virus-lineage H1 hemagglutinin, as does the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus. However, the significance of this antigenic difference for cross-protection among(More)
BACKGROUND Differentiated human airway epithelial cell cultures have been utilized to investigate cystic fibrosis, wound healing, and characteristics of viral infections. These cultures, grown at an air-liquid interface (ALI) in media with defined hormones and growth factors, recapitulate many aspects of the in vivo respiratory tract and allow for(More)