Alexander Hoffmann

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Nuclear localization of the transcriptional activator NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB) is controlled in mammalian cells by three isoforms of NF-kappaB inhibitor protein: IkappaBalpha, -beta, and - epsilon. Based on simplifying reductions of the IkappaB-NF-kappaB signaling module in knockout cell lines, we present a computational model that describes the(More)
Over the past few years, the transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB and the proteins that regulate it have emerged as a signaling system of pre-eminent importance in human physiology and in an increasing number of pathologies. While NF-kappaB is present in all differentiated cell types, its discovery and early characterization were rooted in(More)
We describe a broad mechanistic framework for the transcriptional induction of mammalian primary response genes by Toll-like receptors and other stimuli. One major class of primary response genes is characterized by CpG-island promoters, which facilitate promiscuous induction from constitutively active chromatin without a requirement for SWI/SNF nucleosome(More)
A small number of mammalian signaling pathways mediate a myriad of distinct physiological responses to diverse cellular stimuli. Temporal control of the signaling module that contains IkappaB kinase (IKK), its substrate inhibitor of NF-kappaB (IkappaB), and the key inflammatory transcription factor NF-kappaB can allow for selective gene activation. We have(More)
Tay–Sachs and Sandhoff diseases are clinically similar neurodegenerative disorders. These two sphingolipidoses are characterized by a heritable absence of β–hexosaminidase A resulting in defective GM2 ganglioside degradation. Through disruption of the Hexa and Hexb genes in embryonic stem cells, we have established mouse models corresponding to each(More)
The transcription factor NF-kappaB regulates a wide variety of genes involved in multiple processes. Although the apparent consensus sequence of DNA binding sites for NF-kappaB (kappaB sites) is very broad, the sites active in any one gene show remarkable evolutionary stability. Using a lentivirus-based methodology for implantation of gene regulatory(More)
Hypoxic response and inflammation both involve the action of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factors HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha. Previous studies have revealed that both HIF-alpha proteins are in a number of aspects similarly regulated post-translationally. However, the functional interrelationship of these two isoforms remains largely unclear. The(More)
Nuclear receptors (NRs) repress transcriptional responses to diverse signaling pathways as an essential aspect of their biological activities, but mechanisms determining the specificity and functional consequences of transrepression remain poorly understood. Here, we report signal- and gene-specific repression of transcriptional responses initiated by(More)
TNF-induced NF-kappaB activity shows complex temporal regulation whose different phases lead to distinct gene expression programs. Combining experimental studies and mathematical modeling, we identify two temporal amplification steps-one determined by the obligate negative feedback regulator IkappaBalpha-that define the duration of the first phase of(More)
The general transcription initiation factor TFIID plays a primary part in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II. Binding of TFIID to the TATA box initiates the assembly of other general transcription factors as well as RNA polymerase II at the promoter resulting in a preinitiation complex capable of accurate transcription(More)