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We introduce a new flavor of commitment schemes, which we call mercurial commitments. Informally, mercurial commitments are standard commitments that have been extended to allow for soft decommitment. Soft decommitments, on the one hand, are not binding but, on the other hand, cannot be in conflict with true decommitments. We then demonstrate that a… (More)

We revisit the problem of hardness amplification in NP, as recently studied by O'Donnell (STOC '02). We prove that if NP has a balanced function <i>f</i> such that any circuit of size <i>s</i>(<i>n</i>) fails to compute <i>f</i> on a 1/poly(<i>n</i>) fraction of inputs, then NP has a function <i>f</i>′ such that any circuit of size… (More)

We study the complexity of arithmetic in finite fields of characteristic two, F 2 n. We concentrate on the following two problems: First, we consider the explicit realization of the field F 2 n as F 2 [x]/(x 2·3 l +x 3 l +1) F 2 n , where n = 2·3 l. In this setting, we exhibit Dlogtime-uniform poly(n, t)-size T C 0 circuits computing exponentiation. To the… (More)

We develop a general approach for improving the efficiency of a computationally bounded receiver interacting with a powerful and possibly malicious sender. The key idea we use is that of delegating some of the receiver's computation to the (potentially malicious) sender. This idea was recently introduced by Goldwasser et al. [14] in the area of program… (More)

Program checking, program self-correcting and program self-testing were pioneered by [Blum and Kannan] and [Blum, Luby and Rubinfeld] in the mid eighties as a new way to gain confidence in software, by considering program correctness on an input by input basis rather than full program verification. Work in the field of program checking focused on designing,… (More)

We introduce a new flavor of commitment schemes, which we call mercurial commitments. Informally, mercurial commitments are standard commitments that have been extended to allow for soft decom-mitment. Soft decommitments, on the one hand, are not binding but, on the other hand, cannot be in conflict with true decommitments. We then demonstrate that a… (More)

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