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Pain and the conscious mind (or the self) are experienced in our body. Both are intimately linked to the subjective quality of conscious experience. Here, we used virtual reality technology and visuo-tactile conflicts in healthy subjects to test whether experimentally induced changes of bodily self-consciousness (self-location; self-identification) lead to(More)
INTRODUCTION Recent evidence implicates a cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Because vagus nerve activity mediates some heart rate variability (HRV), this qualitative review examines the literature concerning circulating cytokines and HRV in cardiovascular function in humans. This qualitative review examines the literature concerning circulating(More)
The measurement of inflammation by biomarkers not only documents clinically relevant infections but also offers an important tool to pin point potentially harmful effects of chronic psychosocial stressors. This article focuses firstly on basic biology of inflammation and lists main biomarkers currently used in psycho-physiologic research. In the second(More)
Recent progress in neuroscience revealed diverse regions of the CNS which moderate autonomic and affective responses. The ventro-medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) plays a key role in these regulations. There is evidence that vmPFC activity is associated with cardiovascular changes during a motor task that are mediated by parasympathetic activity. Moreover,(More)
Human perception of stress includes an automatic pathway that processes subliminal presented stimuli below the threshold of conscious awareness. Subliminal stimuli can therefore activate the physiologic stress system. Unconscious emotional signals were shown to significantly moderate reactions and responses to subsequent stimuli, an effect called 'priming'.(More)
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