Traditionally, mapping the motor cortex requires electrodes to stimulate the brain and define motor output pathways. Although effective, electrode-based methods are labor-intensive, potentially damaging to the cortex and can have off-target effects. As an alternative method of motor mapping, we photostimulated transgenic mice expressing the light-sensitive… (More)
Investigators have begun to probe the role of individual surface arterioles in maintaining both the structure and function of cortical regions using vessel-specific clotting by in vivo photothrombosis after craniotomy in mice. To induce targeted strokes we describe a simple adaptation of a commercial upright Olympus BX51WI microscope, permitting light from… (More)
We report the applicability of 4Pi-microscopy to live mammalian cells. Controlled interference of the counterpropagating wavefronts is possible despite the slight variations in cellular refractive index. Superresolved 3D-fluorescence imaging is exemplified with the first representation of the Golgi apparatus in a live cell at approximately 100 nm resolution.