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Caspases, a family of cysteine proteases, play a central role in apoptosis. During the last decade, major progress has been made to further understand caspase structure and function, providing a unique basis for drug design. This Review gives an overview of caspases and their classification, structure, and substrate specificity. We also describe the current(More)
c-FLIPs (c-FLICE inhibitory proteins) play an essential role in regulation of death receptor-induced apoptosis. Multiple splice variants of c-FLIP have been described on the mRNA level; so far only two of them, c-FLIP(L) and c-FLIP(S,) had been found to be expressed at the protein level. In this report, we reveal the endogenous expression of a third isoform(More)
Recently we generated a mathematical model (Bentele, M., Lavrik, I., Ulrich, M., Stosser, S., Heermann, D. W., Kalthoff, H., Krammer, P. H., and Eils, R. (2004) J. Cell Biol. 166, 839-851) of signaling in CD95(Fas/APO-1)-mediated apoptosis. Mathematical modeling in combination with experimental data provided new insights into CD95-mediated apoptosis and(More)
Caspase-2 was reported to be involved in a number of apoptotic pathways triggered by various stimuli. However, the molecular mechanism of procaspase-2 activation in the course of apoptosis remains poorly defined. In this report, we demonstrate that procaspase-2 is recruited to the CD95 (Fas/APO-1) death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) in human T- and(More)
c-FLIP proteins (isoforms: c-FLIP(L), c-FLIP(S), and c-FLIP(R)) play an essential role in the regulation of death receptor-induced apoptosis. Here, we demonstrate that the cytoplasmic NH2-terminal procaspase-8 cleavage product of c-FLIP (p22-FLIP) found in nonapoptotic malignant cells, primary T and B cells, and mature dendritic cells (DCs) strongly induces(More)
Restimulation of the T-cell receptor (TCR) in activated T cells induces CD95 (Fas/Apo-1)-mediated activation-induced cell death (AICD). The TCR-proximal mechanisms leading to AICD are elusive. Here we characterize hematopoietic progenitor kinase 1 (HPK1) as a differentially regulated TCR-proximal signaling protein involved in AICD of primary T cells. We(More)
The intracellular modification of proteins by the addition of a single O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) molecule is a ubiquitous post-translational modification in eukaryotic cells. It is catalysed by O-linked N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, which attaches O-GlcNAc to serine/threonine residues, and it is counter-regulated by(More)
Suramin is a polysulfonated derivative of urea and has been widely used both to treat infections and as a chemotherapeutic drug. Suramin has been shown to inhibit growth factor signaling pathways; however, its effect on apoptosis is unknown. Here we show that suramin inhibits apoptosis induced through death receptors in hepatoma and lymphoma cells. It also(More)
1295 c-FLIP is a well-described inhibitor of death receptor–mediated apoptosis (1). At the mRNA level, it can be found in multiple splice variants , whereas at the protein level only three isoforms, c-FLIP L , c-FLIP S , and c-FLIP R , have been detected so far (1–4). All three c-FLIP isoforms contain two death eff ector domains (DEDs), which are(More)