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Sclerostin, the protein product of the Sost gene, is a potent inhibitor of bone formation. Among bone cells, sclerostin is found nearly exclusively in the osteocytes, the cell type that historically has been implicated in sensing and initiating mechanical signaling. The recent discovery of the antagonistic effects of sclerostin on Lrp5 receptor signaling, a(More)
Exercise during growth results in biologically important increases in bone mineral content (BMC). The aim of this study was to determine whether the effects of loading were site specific and depended on the maturational stage of the region. BMC and humeral dimensions were determined using DXA and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the loaded and nonloaded(More)
As muscles become larger and stronger during growth and in response to increased loading, bones should adapt by adding mass, size, and strength. In this unilateral model, we tested the hypothesis that (1) the relationship between muscle size and bone mass and geometry (nonplaying arm) would not change during different stages of puberty and (2) exercise(More)
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a chromatin protein that acts as an immunomodulatory cytokine upon active release from myeloid cells. HMGB1 is also an alarmin, an endogenous molecule released by dying cells that acts to initiate tissue repair. We have previously reported that osteoclasts and osteoblasts release HMGB1 and release by the latter is(More)
Bone is a dynamic tissue that is constantly renewed. The cell populations that participate in this process--the osteoblasts and osteoclasts--are derived from different progenitor pools that are under distinct molecular control mechanisms. Together, these cells form temporary anatomical structures, called basic multicellular units, that execute bone(More)
Bone tissue responds to elevated mechanical loading with increased bone formation, which is triggered either directly or indirectly by the mechanical strain engendered in the bone tissue. Previous studies have shown that mechanical strain magnitude must surpass a threshold before bone formation is initiated. The objective of this study was to estimate the(More)
Laboratory mice provide a versatile experimental model for studies of skeletal biomechanics. In order to determine the strength of the mouse skeleton, mechanical testing has been performed on a variety of bones using several procedures. Because of differences in testing methods, the data from previous studies are not comparable. The purpose of this study(More)
The cell surface receptor, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) is a key regulator of bone mass. Loss-of-function mutations in LRP5 cause the human skeletal disease osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome, an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severely reduced bone mass and strength. We investigated the role of LRP5 on bone(More)
Mechanical loading presents a potent osteogenic stimulus to bone cells, but bone cells desensitize rapidly to mechanical stimulation. Resensitization must occur before the cells can transduce future mechanical signals effectively. Previous experiments show that mechanical loading protocols are more osteogenic if the load cycles are divided into several(More)