Alexander G L Urbano

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The activity of 176 individual cells in the arm area of motor cortex (areas 4 and 6) was studied while monkeys made arm movements of similar direction within different parts of extrapersonal space. The behavioral paradigm used was a 3-dimensional reaction-time task aimed at dissociating the direction of movement, which remained similar across the work(More)
This paper presents a realistic Laplacian (RL) estimator based on a tensorial formulation of the surface Laplacian (SL) that uses the 2-D thin plate spline function to obtain a mathematical description of a realistic scalp surface. Because of this tensorial formulation, the RL does not need an orthogonal reference frame placed on the realistic scalp(More)
This paper presents a new model-dependent method for the spatial deblurring of scalp-recorded EEG potentials based on boundary-element and cortical imaging techniques. This model-dependent spatial deblurring (MDSD) method used MR images for the reconstruction of the subject's head model, and a layer of 364 radially-oriented equivalent current dipoles as a(More)
In this study we investigated the effects of lambda correction, generalized cross-validation (GCV), and Tikhonov regularization techniques on the realistic Laplacian (RL) estimate of highly-sampled (128 channels) simulated and actual EEG potential distributions. The simulated EEG potential distributions were mathematically generated over a 3-shell spherical(More)
BACKGROUND Polymorphisms affecting Toll-like receptor (TLR) structure appear to be rare, as would be expected due to their essential coordinator role in innate immunity. Here, we assess variation in TLR4 expression, rather than structure, as a mechanism to diversify innate immune responses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We sequenced the TLR4 promoter(More)
The mucosal immune system identifies and fights invading pathogens, while allowing non-pathogenic organisms to persist. Mechanisms of pathogen/non-pathogen discrimination are poorly understood, as is the contribution of human genetic variation in disease susceptibility. We describe here a new, IRF3-dependent signaling pathway that is critical for(More)
HAMLET is the first member of a new family of tumoricidal protein–lipid complexes that kill cancer cells broadly, while sparing healthy, differentiated cells. Many and diverse tumor cell types are sensitive to the lethal effect, suggesting that HAMLET identifies and activates conserved death pathways in cancer cells. Here, we investigated the molecular(More)
In the present study a modern high resolution electroencephalography (EEG) technique was used to investigate the dynamic functional topography of human cortical activity related to simple unilateral internally triggered finger movements. The sensorimotor area (M1-S1) contralateral to the movement as well as the supplementary motor area (SMA) and to a lesser(More)
Twenty-two patients (16 affected by parkinsonian syndromes, 6 by other neurological diseases) and 12 age-matched controls were examined. Short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials were recorded from 30 scalp electrodes in the 45-52 msec following separate left and right median nerve stimulation at the wrist. Bit-colour maps were generated on a 4096 pixel(More)
Between-electrode cross-covariances of delta (0-3 Hz)- and theta (4-7 Hz)-filtered high resolution EEG potentials related to preparation, initiation. and execution of human unilateral internally triggered one-digit movements were computed to investigate statistical dynamic coupling between these potentials. Significant (P < 0.05, Bonferroni-corrected)(More)