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In experiments that use horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and tetramethyl benzidine (TMB) for tracing neural connections, the activity of tissue-bound enzyme as well as the stability of the resultant reaction product are influenced by the duration of storage, the composition of the storage medium, the type of counterstaining and even the details of histological(More)
Horizontal cells form an electrically coupled network for the transmission of inhibitory signals in the outer retina. In teleosts, horizontal cell coupling is modulated by the neurotransmitter dopamine. Using voltage-clamped pairs of teleost horizontal cells, we have examined the effects of dopamine on the conductance and gating properties of the(More)
In the teleost retina, cone horizontal cells receive extensive innervation from dopaminergic interplexiform cells, and possess dopamine receptors whose activation stimulates adenylate cyclase. Exogenously applied dopamine modifies several aspects of horizontal cell activity in the intact retina, including the responsiveness of these neurons to light and the(More)
We employed diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) to identify regions of focal brain ischemia during the first 3 hours after permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in rats. Using DWI as early as 30 minutes after the onset of ischemia, it was possible to identify the areas of brain destined to progress to infarction over the next 24 hours in untreated(More)
Upon exposure to dopamine, cultured teleost retinal horizontal cells become more responsive to the putative photoreceptor neurotransmitter L-glutamate and to its analog kainate. We have recorded unitary and whole-cell currents to determine the mechanism by which dopamine enhances ion channels activated by these agents. In single-channel recordings from(More)
We have obtained electroretinograms (ERGs) from rabbits and macaque monkeys after vitreal administration of 2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (APB), which selectively blocks light-responsiveness in retinal on-bipolar cells. Microelectrode recordings from central visual structures provided an independent measure of the drug effects. In rabbits, APB blocked the(More)
In the vertebrate retina, visual information is segregated into an on channel excited by light increment and a complementary off channel excited by light decrement. We used 2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (APB), which selectively blocks the on channel in the retina (29), to determine the contributions of the on and off pathways to response properties of(More)
The acceptable daily intake (ADI) for food additives is commonly derived from the NOAEL (no-observed-adverse-effect level) in long-term animal in vivo studies. To derive an ADI a safety or uncertainty factor (commonly 100) is applied to the NOAEL in the most sensitive test species. The 100-fold safety factor is considered to be the product of both species(More)
Dopamine, acting via cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate (cAMP), has been shown to enhance a kainate-gated ionic conductance in white perch retinal horizontal cells in vitro. To determine whether this effect involves stimulation of a protein kinase, kainate-gated currents were observed in cultured horizontal cells that were dialyzed with the catalytic(More)
We have originated a family of N,N'-disubstituted guanidines that block the voltage-activated Ca2+ and Na+ channels governing glutamate release. These compounds, CNS 1237 (N-acenaphthyl-N'-methoxynaphthyl guanidine) and its analogues, are "use dependent" in their ability to attenaute neurotransmitter release: they block glutamate release with greater(More)