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Blindsight refers to remarkable residual visual abilities of patients with damage to the primary visual cortex (V1). Recent studies revealed that such residual abilities do not apply only to relatively simple object discriminations, but that these patients can also differentially categorize and respond to emotionally salient stimuli. The current study(More)
BACKGROUND Neural stem cells (NSCs) are a promising source for cell replacement therapies for neurological diseases. Growing evidence suggests an important role of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) not only on neuroectodermal cells during brain development but also on the survival, proliferation and fate specification of NSCs in the adult brain. Existing in vitro(More)
Stroke may be accompanied by immunological consequences including local autoimmunity and peripheral immune suppression. Since the blood brain barrier is disturbed cells of the immune system gain direct access to the brain parenchyma. Here local autoimmunity contributes to lesion formation and, in experimental stroke, inhibition of this immune response has(More)
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are a promising source for cell replacement therapies for neurological diseases. Administration of NSCs into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) offers a nontraumatic transplantation method into the brain. However, cell survival and intraparenchymal migration of the transplants are limited. Furthermore, CSF was recently reported to be an(More)
BACKGROUND In May 2011, an outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing enterohaemorrhagic E coli O104:H4 in northern Germany led to a high proportion of patients developing post-enteritis haemolytic uraemic syndrome and thrombotic microangiopathy that were unresponsive to therapeutic plasma exchange or complement-blocking antibody (eculizumab). Some patients needed(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with the occurrence of white matter plaques in the central nervous system. These are frequently located in areas interconnecting areas associated with the processing of emotions. Although recent behavioral studies indicated social and affective disturbances in many of these patients, functional studies investigating(More)
BACKGROUND Infection is a common phenomenon following stroke, and adversely affects outcome. Previous studies suggest that interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL1RN gene might influence the risk of post-stroke infection and outcome. In this study, we addressed the effects of the rs4251961 SNP in IL1RN(More)
BACKGROUND Disturbances that occur in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are not restricted to motor, sensory, or urinary functions; they also include cognitive dysfunction, fatigue, and depression. Moreover, people with MS are known to have fewer social activities and a reduced quality of life. One aspect of social interaction is accurate recognition of(More)
Stroke is a major cause of disability and leading cause of death in the northern hemisphere. Only recently it became evident that cerebral ischemia not only leads to brain tissue damage and subsequent local inflammation but also to a dramatic loss of peripheral blood T-cells with subsequent infections. However, only scarce information is available on the(More)