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Blindsight refers to remarkable residual visual abilities of patients with damage to the primary visual cortex (V1). Recent studies revealed that such residual abilities do not apply only to relatively simple object discriminations, but that these patients can also differentially categorize and respond to emotionally salient stimuli. The current study(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The signals that initiate the poststroke inflammatory response are unknown. High-mobility group box (HMGB) 1 protein is a nuclear protein that is passively released from necrotic tissue and is able to activate leukocytes, which in turn secrete HMGB1. HMGB1 is also able to activate antigen-presenting cells and therefore stands at the(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Stroke-induced immune alterations predispose patients to infections. Although the relationship between stroke and the adaptive immune system has been investigated in detail, to date it is unknown whether the innate immune system, which forms the first line of antibacterial defense, is also impaired in patients with stroke. Therefore,(More)
BACKGROUND Neural stem cells (NSCs) are a promising source for cell replacement therapies for neurological diseases. Growing evidence suggests an important role of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) not only on neuroectodermal cells during brain development but also on the survival, proliferation and fate specification of NSCs in the adult brain. Existing in vitro(More)
AIMS High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) are considered as anti-atherogenic. Recent experimental findings suggest that their biological properties can be modified in certain clinical conditions by accumulation of serum amyloid A (SAA). The effect of SAA on the association between HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and cardiovascular outcome remains unknown. METHODS AND(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Recent studies have attributed the increased infection vulnerability of patients with stroke to stroke-induced immunosuppression. We have therefore explored the immunological changes in patients with ischemic stroke. METHODS Blood from 46 patients with stroke was analyzed by fluorescent-activated cell sorter to determine leukocyte(More)
OBJECTIVES It is unknown whether the immunological effects of beta-interferon (IFN-beta) differ in primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) when compared with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Therefore, we investigated the effects of IFN-beta1b treatment in PPMS on proliferation and cytokine pattern of peripheral blood mononuclear cells(More)
BACKGROUND In May 2011, an outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing enterohaemorrhagic E coli O104:H4 in northern Germany led to a high proportion of patients developing post-enteritis haemolytic uraemic syndrome and thrombotic microangiopathy that were unresponsive to therapeutic plasma exchange or complement-blocking antibody (eculizumab). Some patients needed(More)
Recent reports have shown that matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs) facilitate T-cell migration into the CNS and play a role in disruption of the blood-brain-barrier and myelin break-down. An increase of MMP-9 serum levels predicts disease activity in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Interferon-beta (IFN-beta), which is an established treatment(More)
Stroke may be accompanied by immunological consequences including local autoimmunity and peripheral immune suppression. Since the blood brain barrier is disturbed cells of the immune system gain direct access to the brain parenchyma. Here local autoimmunity contributes to lesion formation and, in experimental stroke, inhibition of this immune response has(More)