Alexander Drakew

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The spine apparatus is a cellular organelle that is present in many dendritic spines of excitatory neurons in the mammalian forebrain. Despite its discovery >40 years ago, the function of the spine apparatus is still unknown although calcium buffering functions as well as roles in synaptic plasticity have been proposed. We have recently shown that the(More)
The factors determining the lamina-specific termination of entorhinal and commissural afferents to the fascia dentata are poorly understood. Recently it was shown that early generated Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells in the outer molecular layer and reelin, synthesized by CR cells, play a role in the lamina-specific termination of entorhinal fibers which form(More)
The sequence of neuronal alterations resulting from epileptic activity is poorly understood. In the hippocampus of some epileptic patients, there is a loss of certain neuronal types in the hilar region and in CA3. The neuronal alterations preceding this degeneration probably affect synaptic structures. Here we have estimated the number of dendritic spines,(More)
By using slice cultures of hippocampus as a model, we have studied the development of dendritic spines in fascia dentata granule cells. We raised the question as to what extent spine development is dependent on a major afferent input to these neurons, the fibers from the entorhinal cortex and neuronal activity mediated by these axons. Our results can be(More)
The cytoarchitecture of the brain is disrupted severely in reeler mice. This is caused by a deficiency in the protein, Reelin, which is essential for the normal migration and positioning of neurons during development. Although cell migration is clearly affected by the reeler mutation, it is believed that the total number of neurons is not. Thus, we were(More)
We have studied the organization and cellular differentiation of dentate granule cells and their axons, the mossy fibers, in reeler mutant mice lacking reelin and in mutants lacking the reelin receptors very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) and apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2). We show that granule cells in reeler mice do not form a densely(More)
Organotypic co-cultures of the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus were examined to determine the role of the entorhinal fibers in the dendritic development and formation of spines of dentate granule cells. Quantitative analysis of Golgi-impregnated granule cells in single hippocampal cultures and co-cultures with the entorhinal cortex revealed that the(More)
The mammalian cortex exhibits a laminated structure that may underlie optimal synaptic connectivity and support temporally precise activation of neurons. In 'reeler' mice, the lack of the extracellular matrix protein Reelin leads to abnormal positioning of cortical neurons and disrupted layering. To address how these structural changes impact neuronal(More)
Current concepts of synaptic fine-structure are derived from electron microscopic studies of tissue fixed by chemical fixation using aldehydes. However, chemical fixation with glutaraldehyde and paraformaldehyde and subsequent dehydration in ethanol result in uncontrolled tissue shrinkage. While electron microscopy allows for the unequivocal identification(More)
During histogenesis of the neocortex, Cajal Retzius cells in the marginal zone express the glycoprotein reelin which is developmentally regulated and involved in the formation of the inside out mode of cortical layering. Cajal Retzius cells are also present in the developing hippocampus. There, inhibition of reelin by blocking with CR-50, an antibody which(More)