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The ability to introduce fluorophores selectively into proteins provides a powerful tool to study protein structure, dynamics, localization, and biomolecular interactions both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we report a strategy for the selective and efficient biosynthetic incorporation of a low-molecular-weight fluorophore into proteins at defined sites. The(More)
The site-specific incorporation of bioorthogonal groups via genetic code expansion provides a powerful general strategy for site-specifically labelling proteins with any probe. However, the slow reactivity of the bioorthogonal functional groups that can be encoded genetically limits the utility of this strategy. We demonstrate the genetic encoding of a(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single stranded RNA molecules of ∼22 nucleotides that negatively regulate gene expression. MiRNAs are involved in fundamental cellular processes, such as development, differentiation, proliferation, and survival. MiRNA misregulation has been linked to various human diseases, most notably cancer. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21), a(More)
Using a novel genetic selection, we have identified a series of mutants of the E. coli tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase that selectively charge an amber suppressor tRNA with p-(propargyloxy)phenylalanine and p-azidophenylalanine in yeast. These evolved tRNA-synthetase pairs can be used to site-specifically label proteins with functional groups orthogonal to normal(More)
The most abundant microRNA (miRNA) in the liver, miR-122, is regulated by specific, liver-enriched transcription factors and is responsible for proper proliferation and differentiation of hepatocytes and for the regulation of lipid and cholesterol metabolisms. miR-122 is also involved in several hepatic disorders, as downregulation of miR-122 is often(More)
We have developed a second orthogonal tRNA/synthetase pair for use in yeast based on the Escherichia coli tRNALeu/leucyl tRNA-synthetase pair. Using a novel genetic selection, we have identified a series of synthetase mutants that selectively charge the amber suppresor tRNA with the C8 amino acid, alpha-aminocaprylic acid, and the photocaged amino acid,(More)
We demonstrate that an orthogonal Methanosarcina barkeri MS pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNA(CUA) pair directs the efficient, site-specific incorporation of N6-[(2-propynyloxy)carbonyl]-L-lysine, containing a carbon-carbon triple bond, and N6-[(2-azidoethoxy)carbonyl]-L-lysine, containing an azido group, into recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli.(More)
Morpholino oligonucleotides, or morpholinos, have emerged as powerful antisense reagents for evaluating gene function in both in vitro and in vivo contexts. However, the constitutive activity of these reagents limits their utility for applications that require spatiotemporal control, such as tissue-specific gene disruptions in embryos. Here we report a(More)