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The Tübingen large-scale zebrafish genetic screen completed in 1996 identified a set of five genes required for orderly somite segmentation. Four of them have been molecularly identified and three were found to code for components of the Notch pathway, which are required for the coordinated oscillation of gene expression, known as the segmentation clock, in(More)
—We analyze the temperature performance of five ter-ahertz (THz)-frequency quantum cascade lasers based on a three-quantum-well resonant-phonon depopulation design as a function of operating frequency in the 2.3–3.8-THz range. We find evidence that the device performance is limited by the interplay between two factors: 1) optical phonon scattering of(More)
Hair cells of the vertebrate inner ear are directional mechanosensors: they have a polarity, defined by a vector in the plane of the sensory epithelium. It has been suggested that this polarity might be controlled by genes homologous to those that control planar cell polarity (PCP) in Drosophila, and vertebrate homologues of the Drosophila PCP genes Van(More)
—Terahertz (THz) quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are currently the most advanced electrically pumped semiconductor lasers in the spectral range 1–5 THz. However, their operation at room temperature is still an unresolved challenge. In this paper, we discuss our efforts to improve the temperature performance of these devices. In particular, we present THz QCLs(More)
We have measured the spectral linewidths of three continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers operating at terahertz frequencies by heterodyning the free-running quantum cascade laser with two far-infrared gas lasers. Beat notes are detected with a GaAs diode mixer and a microwave spectrum analyzer, permitting very precise frequency measurements and giving(More)
  • Michael Bahriz, Virginie Moreau, Raffaele Colombelli, Orion Crisafulli, Oskar Painter, Thomas J Watson +114 others
  • 2007
We present the design of mid-infrared and THz quantum cascade laser cavities formed from planar photonic crystals with a complete in-plane photonic bandgap. The design is based on a honeycomb lattice, and achieves a full in-plane photonic gap for transverse-magnetic polarized light while preserving a connected pattern for efficient electrical injection.(More)
The terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum spans the frequency range between the mid-infrared and the millimetre/microwave. This region has not been exploited fully to date owing to the limited number of suitable (in particular, coherent) radiation sources and detectors. Recent demonstrations, using pulsed near-infrared femtosecond laser systems,(More)
Recently, much attention has been focused on the generation of optical frequency combs from quantum cascade lasers. We discuss how fast detectors can be used to demonstrate the mutual coherence of such combs, and present an inequality that can be used to quantitatively evaluate their performance. We discuss several technical issues related to shifted wave(More)
Slope efficiency (SE) is an important performance metric for lasers. In conventional semiconductor lasers, SE can be optimized by careful designs of the facet (or the modulation for DFB lasers) dimension and surface. However, photonic wire lasers intrinsically suffer low SE due to their deep sub-wavelength emitting facets. Inspired by microwave engineering(More)