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A method for RNA amplification in an immobilized medium is described. The medium contains a complete set of nucleotide substrates and purified Q beta replicase, an enzyme capable of exponentially amplifying RNAs under isothermal conditions. RNA amplification in the immobilized medium results in the formation of separate 'colonies', each comprising the(More)
A very efficient replicase template has been isolated from the products of spontaneous RNA synthesis in an in vitro Q beta replicase reaction that was incubated in the absence of added RNA. This template was named RQ135 RNA because it is 135 nucleotides in length. Its sequence consists entirely of segments that are homologous to ribosomal 23 S RNA and the(More)
Distant genomic elements were found to interact within the folded eukaryotic genome. However, the used experimental approach (chromosome conformation capture, 3C) enables neither determination of the percentage of cells in which the interactions occur nor demonstration of simultaneous interaction of >2 genomic elements. Each of the above can be done using(More)
Current models of recombination between viral RNAs are based on replicative template-switch mechanisms. The existence of nonreplicative RNA recombination in poliovirus is demonstrated in the present study by the rescue of viable viruses after cotransfections with different pairs of genomic RNA fragments with suppressed translatable and replicating(More)
A variety of small RNAs ranging from tens to hundreds of nucleotides in length grow autocatalytically in a Q beta replicase (Q beta phage RNA-dependent RNA polymerase) reaction in the absence of added template, and similar RNAs are found in Q beta phage-infected Escherichia coli cells. Three such RNAs have been sequenced. One of them that is 221 nucleotides(More)
For more than three decades, RNA recombination remained a puzzle and has only begun to be solved in the last few years. The available data provide evidence for a variety of RNA recombination mechanisms. Non-homologous recombination seems to be the most common for RNA. Recent experiments in both the in vitro and the in vivo systems indicate that this type of(More)
When PCR is carried out in a polyacrylamide gel, each target molecule forms a molecular colony that comprises many copies of the original template. By counting the number of colonies, one can directly determine the target titer, with 100% of the DNA molecules and approximately 15% of the RNA molecules being detected. Furthermore, because of the spatial(More)
Extensive nonhomologous recombinations occur between the 5' and 3' fragments of a replicable RNA in a cell-free system composed of pure Qbeta phage replicase and ribonucleoside triphosphates, providing direct evidence for the ability of RNAs to recombine without DNA intermediates and in the absence of host cell proteins. The recombination events are(More)
The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase core complex formed upon infection of Escherichia coli by the bacteriophage Qbeta is composed of the viral catalytic beta-subunit as well as the host translation elongation factors EF-Tu and EF-Ts, which are required for initiation of RNA replication. We have determined the crystal structure of the complex between the(More)
Combination of the Q beta replicase reaction with the Escherichia coli cell-free translation system markedly enhances replication of a recombinant RQ-DHFR RNA consisting of the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) mRNA sequence inserted into RQ135(-1) RNA, an efficient naturally occurring Q beta replicase template. The enhancement is associated with a replication(More)