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We demonstrated the in vivo feasibility of using focused ultrasound (FUS) to transiently modulate (through either stimulation or suppression) the function of regional brain tissue in rabbits. FUS was delivered in a train of pulses at low acoustic energy, far below the cavitation threshold, to the animal's somatomotor and visual areas, as guided by(More)
BACKGROUND Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) is a noninvasive procedure that has been used for decades in the United States to treat anxiety, depression, and insomnia in the general population. Whether CES is an effective treatment for patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has not previously been explored. The goal of(More)
BACKGROUND Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder, which is attributed to uncontrollable abnormal hyper-excitability of neurons. We investigated the feasibility of using low-intensity, pulsed radiation of focused ultrasound (FUS) to non-invasively suppress epileptic activity in an animal model (rat), which was induced by the intraperitonial injection of(More)
CONTEXT Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a severe psychiatric condition in which individuals are preoccupied with perceived appearance defects. Clinical observation suggests that patients with BDD focus on details of their appearance at the expense of configural elements. This study examines abnormalities in visual information processing in BDD that may(More)
The key contribution of this work is to introduce a mathematical framework to understand self-organized dynamics in the brain that can explain certain aspects of itinerant behavior. Specifically, we introduce a model based upon the coupling of generalized Lotka-Volterra systems. This coupling is based upon competition for common resources. The system can be(More)
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to explore the efficacy of adding an atypical antipsychotic, olanzapine, to a serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) in treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). METHOD Twenty-six patients aged between 18 and 65 (mean = 41.2, SD = 11.9) years meeting DSM-IV criteria for OCD, who had not responded to(More)
While undergoing fMRI, six patients with DSM IV diagnosis of panic disorder and six normal controls performed directed imagery of neutral, moderate and high anxiety situations based on an individually determined behavioral hierarchy. Brain activity was compared during high vs neutral anxiety blocks for each group of subjects using SPM99b. Panic patients(More)
BACKGROUND Panic disorder is a prevalent, often disabling condition among patients in the primary care setting. Although numerous studies have assessed the effectiveness of treatments for depression in primary care, few such studies have been conducted for panic disorder. OBJECTIVE To implement and test the effectiveness of a combined pharmacotherapy and(More)
Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) is a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatment for insomnia, depression, and anxiety consisting of pulsed, low-intensity current applied to the earlobes or scalp. Despite empirical evidence of clinical efficacy, its mechanism of action is largely unknown. The goal was to characterize the acute(More)