Alexander Bolotin

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Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatly expanded by gene duplication, the largest family(More)
Lactococcus lactis is a nonpathogenic AT-rich gram-positive bacterium closely related to the genus Streptococcus and is the most commonly used cheese starter. It is also the best-characterized lactic acid bacterium. We sequenced the genome of the laboratory strain IL1403, using a novel two-step strategy that comprises diagnostic sequencing of the entire(More)
The lactic acid bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus is widely used for the manufacture of yogurt and cheese. This dairy species of major economic importance is phylogenetically close to pathogenic streptococci, raising the possibility that it has a potential for virulence. Here we report the genome sequences of two yogurt strains of S. thermophilus. We(More)
Numerous prokaryote genomes contain structures known as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs), composed of 25-50 bp repeats separated by unique sequence spacers of similar length. CRISPR structures are found in the vicinity of four genes named cas1 to cas4. In silico analysis revealed another cluster of three genes associated(More)
Bacillus licheniformis is a Gram-positive, spore-forming soil bacterium that is used in the biotechnology industry to manufacture enzymes, antibiotics, biochemicals and consumer products. This species is closely related to the well studied model organism Bacillus subtilis, and produces an assortment of extracellular enzymes that may contribute to nutrient(More)
Streptococcus thermophilus is a major dairy starter used for the manufacture of yoghurt and cheese. The access to three genome sequences, comparative genomics and multilocus sequencing analyses suggests that this species recently emerged and is still undergoing a process of regressive evolution towards a specialised bacterium for growth in milk. Notably, S.(More)
Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) is a representative of the group of lactic acid-producing bacteria, mainly known for its worldwide application in yogurt production. The genome sequence of this bacterium has been determined and shows the signs of ongoing specialization, with a substantial number of pseudogenes and incomplete(More)
We identified an exported protease in Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis strain IL1403 belonging to the HtrA/DegP family. Inactivation of the chromosomal gene (htrALl) encoding this protease (HtrALl) results in growth thermo-sensitivity at very high temperatures (above 37 degrees C for L. lactis). The role of htrALl in extracellular proteolysis under normal(More)
We report the genetic organisation of six prophages present in the genome of Lactococcus lactis IL1403. The three larger prophages (36-42 kb), belong to the already described P335 group of temperate phages, whereas the three smaller ones (13-15 kb) are most probably satellites relying on helper phage(s) for multiplication. These data give a new insight into(More)
This review summarizes a collection of lactic acid bacteria that are now undergoing genomic sequencing and analysis. Summaries are presented on twenty different species, with each overview discussing the organisms fundamental and practical significance, nvironmental habitat, and its role in fermentation, bioprocessing, or probiotics. For those projects(More)