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Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatly expanded by gene duplication, the largest family(More)
Numerous prokaryote genomes contain structures known as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs), composed of 25-50 bp repeats separated by unique sequence spacers of similar length. CRISPR structures are found in the vicinity of four genes named cas1 to cas4. In silico analysis revealed another cluster of three genes associated(More)
BACKGROUND Bacillus licheniformis is a Gram-positive, spore-forming soil bacterium that is used in the biotechnology industry to manufacture enzymes, antibiotics, biochemicals and consumer products. This species is closely related to the well studied model organism Bacillus subtilis, and produces an assortment of extracellular enzymes that may contribute to(More)
Streptococcus thermophilus is a major dairy starter used for the manufacture of yoghurt and cheese. The access to three genome sequences, comparative genomics and multilocus sequencing analyses suggests that this species recently emerged and is still undergoing a process of regressive evolution towards a specialised bacterium for growth in milk. Notably, S.(More)
We report the genetic organisation of six prophages present in the genome of Lactococcus lactis IL1403. The three larger prophages (36-42 kb), belong to the already described P335 group of temperate phages, whereas the three smaller ones (13-15 kb) are most probably satellites relying on helper phage(s) for multiplication. These data give a new insight into(More)
This review summarizes a collection of lactic acid bacteria that are now undergoing genomic sequencing and analysis. Summaries are presented on twenty different species, with each overview discussing the organisms fundamental and practical significance, environmental habitat, and its role in fermentation, bioprocessing, or probiotics. For those projects(More)
Identification of short genes that encode peptides of fewer than 60 aa is challenging, both experimentally and in silico. As a consequence, the universe of these short coding sequences (CDSs) remains largely unknown, although some are acknowledged to play important roles in cell-cell communication, particularly in Gram-positive bacteria. This paper reports(More)
In Lactococcus lactis, which is widely used as a starter in the cheese industry, the first step of aromatic and branched-chain amino acid degradation is a transamination which is catalyzed by two major aminotransferases. We have previously purified and characterized biochemically and genetically the aromatic aminotransferase, AraT. In the present study, we(More)
BACKGROUND A challenging goal in biology is to understand how the principal cellular functions are integrated so that cells achieve viability and optimal fitness in a wide range of nutritional conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We report here a tight link between glycolysis and DNA synthesis. The link, discovered during an analysis of suppressors(More)
Lactococcus lactis, a food-grade nonpathogenic lactic acid bacterium, is a good candidate for the production of heterologous proteins of therapeutic interest. We examined host factors that affect secretion of heterologous proteins in L. lactis. Random insertional mutagenesis was performed with L. lactis strain MG1363 carrying a staphylococcal nuclease (Nuc)(More)