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The mammalian heart contains two cardiac myosin isoforms: beta-myosin heavy chain (MHC) is found predominantly in the ventricles of large mammals, and alpha-MHC is expressed in the atria. The sequence identity between these isoforms is approximately 93%, with nonidentical residues clustered in discrete, functionally important domains associated with actin(More)
Glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) is involved in metabolism, neurodegeneration, and cancer. Inhibition of GSK3beta activity is the primary mechanism that regulates this widely expressed active kinase. Although the protein kinase Akt inhibits GSK3beta by phosphorylation at the N terminus, preventing Akt-mediated phosphorylation does not affect the(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The formation of reactive astrocytes is common after central nervous system injuries such as stroke. However, the signaling pathway(s) that control astrocyte formation and functions are poorly defined. We assess the effects of Notch 1 signaling in peri-infarct-reactive astrocytes after stroke. METHODS We examined reactive astrocyte(More)
The mutL gene product is part of the dam-directed mismatch repair system of Escherichia coli but has no known enzymatic function. It forms a complex on heteroduplex DNA with the mismatch recognition MutS protein and with MutH, which has latent endonuclease activity. An N-terminal hexahistidine-tagged MutL was constructed which was active in vivo. As a first(More)
Vsr DNA mismatch endonuclease is the key enzyme of very short patch (VSP) DNA mismatch repair and nicks the T-containing strand at the site of a T-G mismatch in a sequence-dependent manner. MutS is part of the mutHLS repair system and binds to diverse mismatches in DNA. The function of the mutL gene product is currently unclear but mutations in the gene(More)
The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway can be activated by a variety of stress stimuli such as UV radiation and osmotic stress. The regulation and role of this pathway in death receptor-induced apoptosis remain unclear and may depend on the specific death receptor and cell type. Here we show that binding of Fas ligand to Fas(More)
AIMS The aim of this study was to evaluate the paracrine activity of human epicardial-derived cells (hEPDCs) to screen for secreted vasoprotective factors and develop therapeutics to treat vascular reperfusion injury. METHODS AND RESULTS Epicardial cells support cardiac development, repair, and remodelling after injury in part, through paracrine activity.(More)
The presence of 1-3 additional plasmids ranging from 16 to 400 Md in mol mass was revealed in bacterial cells besides a megaloplasmid in most of 34 Rhizobium meliloti strains studied. No correlation was found between plasmids pattern and geographical origin of isolation source of the strain analyzed.