Alexander A. Spector

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Spatial patterns of cellular growth generate mechanical stresses that help to push, fold, expand, and deform tissues into their specific forms. Genetic factors are thought to specify patterns of growth and other behaviors to drive morphogenesis. Here, we show that tissue form itself can feed back to regulate patterns of proliferation. Using(More)
Protrusions are deformations that form at the surface of living cells during biological activities such as cell migration. Using combined optical tweezers and fluorescent microscopy, we quantified the mechanical properties of protrusions in adherent human embryonic kidney cells in response to application of an external force at the cell surface. The(More)
The low-pass voltage response of outer hair cells predicted by conventional equivalent circuit analysis would preclude the active force production at high frequencies. We have found that the band pass characteristics can be improved by introducing the piezoelectric properties of the cell wall. In contrast to the conventional analysis, the receptor potential(More)
We analyze the nonlinear behavior of the longitudinal and circumferential components of the active force generated by the outer hair cell wall in response to changes of its transmembrane potential. We treat the material of the wall as electroelastic, linear orthotropic in terms of strains and as nonlinear in terms of the transmembrane potential. To describe(More)
  • A A Spector
  • ORL; journal for oto-rhino-laryngology and its…
  • 1999
A nonlinear electroelastic model for the composite wall of the cochlear outer hair cell is proposed. The cell wall is modeled as a two-layer shell with elastic connections between the layers: an active layer corresponds to the plasma membrane and a passive layer corresponds to a combination of the cytoskeleton and the subsurface cisternae. As a basis of the(More)
We investigated the mechanotransduction pathway in endothelial cells between their nucleus and adhesions to the extracellular matrix. First, we measured nuclear deformations in response to alterations of cell shape as cells detach from a flat surface. We found that the nuclear deformation appeared to be in direct and immediate response to alterations of the(More)
The outer hair cell makes both passive and active contributions to basilar membrane mechanics. The outer hair cell mechanics is strongly coupled to the elastic properties of the cell lateral wall. The lateral wall experiences both in-plane deformations and bending under physiological and experimental conditions. To characterize the outer hair cell wall, the(More)
We propose a mathematical model for analyses of the elastic properties of the wall of the outer hair cell (OHC) in the inner ear. The model reflects the properties of the major components of the OHC wall: the subsurface cisternae, the cortical lattice, the plasma membrane, and the radial pillars. The wall is treated as a composite consisting of three(More)
Cochlear outer hair cells are crucial for active hearing. These cells have a unique form of motility, named electromotility, whose main features are the cell's length changes, active force production, and nonlinear capacitance. The molecular motor, prestin, that drives outer hair cell electromotility has recently been identified. We reveal relationships(More)
Cochlear outer hair cells (OHC) are critically important for the amplification and sharp frequency selectivity of the mammalian ear. The microchamber experiment has been an effective tool to analyze the OHC high-frequency performance. In this study, the OHC electrical stimulation in the microchamber is simulated. The model takes into account the inertial(More)