Alexander A S C Clanachan

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Despite the high expression of 5'AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) in heart, the activity and function of this enzyme in heart muscle has not been characterized. We demonstrate that rat hearts have a high AMPK activity, comparable to that found in liver, which could be stimulated up to 3-fold by 5'AMP. Cardiac AMPK is also under phosphorylation control,(More)
OBJECTIVES This study was designed to determine if the fatty acid-induced increase in H(+) production from glycolysis uncoupled from glucose oxidation delays the recovery of intracellular pH (pH(i)) during reperfusion of ischemic hearts. BACKGROUND High rates of fatty acid oxidation inhibit glucose oxidation and impair the recovery of mechanical function(More)
Cardiac efficiency is decreased in hearts after severe ischemia. We determined whether reducing the production of H+ from glucose metabolism or inhibiting the clearance of H+ via Na(+)-H+ exchange could increase cardiac efficiency during reperfusion. This was achieved using dichloroacetate (DCA) to stimulate glucose oxidation and 5-(N,N-dimethyl)-amiloride(More)
In this study we determined whether contractile function becomes uncoupled during reperfusion of ischemic hearts from mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity or myocardial O2 consumption (MVO2). Isolated working rat hearts perfused with buffer containing 1.2 mM palmitate and 11 mM glucose were subjected to 30 min of global ischemia followed by(More)
We hypothesized that the cardioprotective effect of angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT(2)R) blockade with PD 123,319 (PD) on the recovery of left ventricular (LV) mechanical function after ischemia/reperfusion (IR) in the isolated working rat heart is associated with the enhanced expression of AT(2)R protein and mRNA as well as an increase in inositol(More)
Excessive reverse-mode (RM) sodium/calcium exchanger 1.1 (NCX1.1) activity, resulting from intracellular sodium accumulation caused by reduced Na+/K+-ATPase activity, increased Na-H exchanger 1 activity. The induction of the voltage-gated sodium channel late current component (late INa), is a major pathway for intracellular calcium (Ca2+i) loading in(More)
1. Cardioprotection by adenosine A1 receptor activation limits infarct size and improves post-ischaemic mechanical function. The mechanisms responsible are unclear but may involve alterations in myocardial glucose metabolism. 2. Since glycogen is an important source of glucose during ischaemia, we examined the effects of N6-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA), an A1(More)
Cardiac pathologies are associated with increased late INa that contributes to the dysregulation of ion homeostasis and causes electrical and contractile dysfunction. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that an increased late sodium channel current (INa) leads to Ca2+ overload and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, and thereby inhibition of late(More)
Peroxynitrite (ONOO-) inhibits energy metabolism in isolated cells and mitochondria and may be involved in the depression of cardiac mechanical function during pathophysiological states. We determined the actions of ONOO- on cardiac function and energy metabolism in isolated working rat hearts and compared them with the NO donor(More)
BACKGROUND Two preconditioning stimuli should induce a more consistent overall cell protection. We hypothesized that remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC, second preconditioning stimulus) applied during isoflurane inhalation (first preconditioning stimulus) would provide more protection to the myocardium of patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery(More)