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We show that the escape of hydrogen from early Earth's atmosphere likely occurred at rates slower by two orders of magnitude than previously thought. The balance between slow hydrogen escape and volcanic outgassing could have maintained a hydrogen mixing ratio of more than 30%. The production of prebiotic organic compounds in such an atmosphere would have(More)
Recent exploration by the Cassini/Huygens mission has stimulated a great deal of interest in Saturn's moon, Titan. One of Titan's most captivating features is the thick organic haze layer surrounding the moon, believed to be formed from photochemistry high in the CH(4)/N(2) atmosphere. It has been suggested that a similar haze layer may have formed on the(More)
An organic haze layer in the upper atmosphere of Titan plays a crucial role in the atmospheric composition and climate of that moon. Such a haze layer may also have existed on the early Earth, providing an ultraviolet shield for greenhouse gases needed to warm the planet enough for life to arise and evolve. Despite the implications of such a haze layer,(More)
We determined radiogenic and cosmogenic noble gases in a mudstone on the floor of Gale Crater. A K-Ar age of 4.21 ± 0.35 billion years represents a mixture of detrital and authigenic components and confirms the expected antiquity of rocks comprising the crater rim. Cosmic-ray-produced (3)He, (21)Ne, and (36)Ar yield concordant surface exposure ages of 78 ±(More)
H2O, CO2, SO2, O2, H2, H2S, HCl, chlorinated hydrocarbons, NO, and other trace gases were evolved during pyrolysis of two mudstone samples acquired by the Curiosity rover at Yellowknife Bay within Gale crater, Mars. H2O/OH-bearing phases included 2:1 phyllosilicate(s), bassanite, akaganeite, and amorphous materials. Thermal decomposition of carbonates and(More)
Hydrodynamic escape is an important process in the formation and evolution of planetary atmospheres. Tran-sonic steady state solutions of the time-independent hydrodynamic equations are difficult to find because of the existence of a singularity point. A numerical model is developed to study the hydrodynamic escape of neutral gas from planetary atmospheres(More)
We present first neutrino induced events observed with a deep underwater neutrino telescope. Data from 70 days effective life time of the BAIKAL prototype telescope NT-96 have been analyzed with two different methods. With the standard track reconstruction method, 9 clear upward muon candidates have been identified, in good agreement with 8.7 events(More)
The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on board the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover is designed to conduct inorganic and organic chemical analyses of the atmosphere and the surface regolith and rocks to help evaluate the past and present habitability potential of Mars at Gale Crater. Central to this task is the development of an inventory of(More)
[1] Previous laboratory studies of haze aerosols analogous to those in Titan's atmosphere have shown evidence of the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). If present, PAHs may provide a mechanism for both particle formation and nitrogen incorporation. We have conducted new experiments simulating Titan haze production using an Aerosol Mass(More)