Alex van Belkum

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The bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus, including its methicillin-resistant variant (MRSA), finds its primary ecological niche in the human nose, but is also able to colonize the intestines and the perineal region. Intestinal carriage has not been widely investigated despite its potential clinical impact. This review summarizes literature on the topic(More)
BACKGROUND Staphylococcus aureus is capable of persistently colonizing the vestibulum nasi. We hypothesized that polymorphisms in host inflammatory response genes and genetic variation in S. aureus contribute to susceptibility to S. aureus carriage and infection. METHODS The prevalence of persistent nasal carriage of S. aureus in 3851 participants aged(More)
Repetitive DNA is ubiquitous in microbial genomes. Different classes of short sequence repeats (SSRs) have been identified and demonstrated to be generally heterogeneous in a locus-dependent manner, reflected in variation in the number of repeat units present at a given genomic site or by sequence heterogeneity among individual units. Both types of(More)
Twenty-six methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus strains were genetically differentiated by interrepeat PCR and the results compared with those of ribotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis obtained in a previous study for the same strains. The comparison showed that the PCR-mediated assays were as(More)
Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) is a post-infectious disease in which the human peripheral nervous system is affected after infection by specific pathogenic bacteria, including Campylobacter jejuni. GBS is suggested to be provoked by molecular mimicry between sialylated lipooligosaccharide (LOS) structures on the cell envelope of these bacteria and(More)
 The prevalence of vancomycin resistance is steadily rising among clinical isolates of Enterococcus spp., thereby limiting the treatment options for infections caused by vancomycin-resistant enterococci. The precise nature of the glycopeptide resistance genes has been elucidated, and many studies on gene reservoirs and strain-versus-resistance-gene(More)
MOTIVATION Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry has been broadly adopted by routine clinical microbiology laboratories for bacterial species identification. An isolated colony of the targeted microorganism is the single prerequisite. Currently, MS-based microbial identification directly from clinical specimens can not(More)
 In order to evaluate a new commercial enzyme immunoassay (ProspecT Campylobacter Microplate Assay; Alexon-Trend, USA) for the detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in stool samples, 30 faecal specimens known to be culture-positive for Campylobacter jejuni were tested with the new assay. The detection limit was approximately 3×106/ml in(More)
Recently, plasmid-mediated and, therefore, transferable bacterial polymyxin resistance was discovered in strains from both humans and animals. Such a trait may widely spread geographically, while simultaneously crossing microbial species barriers. This may ultimately render the “last resort” polymyxin antibiotics therapeutically useless. Colistin is(More)
The capacity of absorbent beads in BacT/ALERT® FA Plus and BACTEC® Aerobic/F Plus blood culture bottles to bind and neutralize antibiotics was compared. Binding was established using reverse-phase HPLC, and inactivation was based on the recovery of susceptible test stains from simulated blood cultures. The FA Plus medium demonstrated more rapid and better(More)