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Cells lining the gastrointestinal tract serve as both a barrier to and a pathway for infectious agent entry. Dendritic cells (DCs) present in the lamina propria under the columnar villus epithelium of the small bowel extend processes across this epithelium and capture bacteria, but previous studies provided limited information on the nature of the stimuli,(More)
In contrast to naïve T cells that recognize short antigen-derived peptides displayed by specialized antigen-presenting cells, immunoglobulin receptors of B lymphocytes primarily recognize intact proteins. How and where within a lymph node such unprocessed antigens become available for naïve B cell recognition is not clear. We used two-photon intravital(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells promote dendritic cell (DC) maturation and influence T cell differentiation in vitro. To better understand the nature of the putative interactions among these cells in vivo during the early phases of an adaptive immune response, we have used immunohistochemical analysis and dynamic intravital imaging to study NK cell localization(More)
CD8+ T cells have a crucial role in resistance to pathogens and can kill malignant cells; however, some critical functions of these lymphocytes depend on helper activity provided by a distinct population of CD4+ T cells. Cooperation between these lymphocyte subsets involves recognition of antigens co-presented by the same dendritic cell, but the frequencies(More)
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