Alex W. Macharia

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The hemoglobinopathies, disorders of hemoglobin structure and production, protect against death from malaria. In sub-Saharan Africa, two such conditions occur at particularly high frequencies: presence of the structural variant hemoglobin S and alpha(+)-thalassemia, a condition characterized by reduced production of the normal alpha-globin component of(More)
Although the alpha+ thalassemias almost certainly confer protection against death from malaria, this has not been formally documented. We have conducted a study involving 655 case patients with rigorously defined severe malaria and 648 controls, frequency matched on area of residence and ethnic group. The prevalence of both heterozygous and homozygous(More)
BACKGROUND In sub-Saharan Africa, more than 90% of children with sickle-cell anaemia die before the diagnosis can be made. The causes of death are poorly documented, but bacterial sepsis is probably important. We examined the risk of invasive bacterial diseases in children with sickle-cell anaemia. METHODS This study was undertaken in a rural area on the(More)
Methods and Findings We studied the aþ-thalassaemia-specific incidence of malaria and other common childhood diseases in two cohorts of children living on the coast of Kenya. We found no associations between aþ-thalassaemia and the prevalence of symptomless Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia, the incidence of uncomplicated P. falciparum disease, or parasite(More)
BACKGROUND Haptoglobin (Hp) genotype determines the efficiency of hemoglobin clearance after malaria-induced hemolysis and alters antioxidant and immune functions. The Hp2 allele is thought to have spread under strong selection pressure, but it is unclear whether this is due to protection from malaria or other diseases. METHODS We monitored the incidence(More)
Genome-wide searches for loci involved in human resistance to malaria are currently being conducted on a large scale in Africa using case-control studies. Here, we explore the utility of an alternative approach-"environmental correlation analysis, ECA," which tests for clines in allele frequencies across a gradient of an environmental selection pressure-to(More)
BACKGROUND The alpha-thalassaemias are the commonest genetic disorders of humans. It is generally believed that this high frequency reflects selection through a survival advantage against death from malaria; nevertheless, the epidemiological description of the relationships between alpha-thalassaemia, malaria, and other common causes of child mortality(More)
Whether the number of concurrent clones in asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections reflects the degree of host protection was investigated in children living in areas with different levels of transmission on the coast of Kenya. The number of concurrent clones was determined on the basis of polymorphism in msp2, which encodes the vaccine candidate(More)
BACKGROUND Severe anemia (SA, hemoglobin <6 g/dl) is a leading cause of pediatric hospital admission in Africa, with significant in-hospital mortality. The underlying etiology is often infectious, but specific pathogens are rarely identified. Guidelines developed to encourage rational blood use recommend a standard volume of whole blood (20 ml/kg) for(More)
BACKGROUND Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) studies are a vital tool to accelerate vaccine and drug development. As CHMI trials are performed in a controlled environment, they allow unprecedented, detailed evaluation of parasite growth dynamics (PGD) and immunological responses. However, CHMI studies have not been routinely performed in(More)