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1. Hyper-induction of cytokines and chemokines was found in human blood macrophages infected with the avian influenza H5N1 and H9N2/G1 viruses, as compared to those infected with human influenza H1N1 virus. 2. IRF3 played a significant role in the hyperinduction of cytokines including IFN-β, IFN-λ1,IFN-α subtypes, MCP-1, and TNF-α, and also played a part in(More)
Cells from multiple origins contribute to vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) development. Phenotypic heterogeneity of VSMCs is associated with their point of developmental origin; however, the mechanisms driving such differences are unknown. We here examined the mechanisms controlling vascular bed-specific differences in Rgs5 expression during development.(More)
In the HealthMap project for People With HIV, (PWHIV) designers employed a collaborative rapid ‘persona-building’ workshop with health researchers to develop patient personas that embodied patient-centred design goals and contextual awareness from a variety of qualitative and quantitative data. On reflection this collaborative rapid workshop was a process(More)
Influenza viruses of avian origin continue to pose pandemic threats to human health. Some of the H5N1 and H9N2 virus subtypes induce markedly elevated cytokine levels when compared with the seasonal H1N1 virus. We previously showed that H5N1/97 hyperinduces tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha through p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK). However, the(More)
Disclaimer This report has been produced by the Transport Research Laboratory under a contract with Highways Agency. Any views expressed in this report are not necessarily those of Highways Agency. The information contained herein is the property of TRL Limited and does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the customer for whom this report was(More)
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